The multivariate dimensionality of personal control and future time perspective beliefs in achievement and self-regulation

Duane F. Shell, Jenefer Husman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

106 Scopus citations


We examined the relations between college students' control beliefs and future time perspective (FTP) and their academic achievement and studying using canonical correlation. We identified two statistically significant canonical correlations. One associated primarily competency belief, as reflected by self-efficacy, and FTP connectedness with grades. The other associated primarily contingency beliefs, as reflected by locus of control and causal attributions, and FTP connectedness and valence with studying. Results support a distinction between competency and contingency in personal control beliefs and suggest that these have somewhat different motivational consequences. Results also indicate that future time perspective beliefs play a role in motivating achievement and studying.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)481-506
Number of pages26
JournalContemporary Educational Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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