The measurement of whole-word productions

David Ingram

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    108 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Attempts to measure phonological acquisition have largely focused on segments, with less effort made to examine whole-word productions. This article proposes four measures designed to estimate a child's whole-word abilities: 1. the PHONOLOGICAL MEAN LENGTH OF UTTERANCE, a measure of whole-word complexity for both child and target words, 2. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD PROXIMITY, a measure of the proximity between the child's word and its target form, 3. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD CORRECTNESS, a measure of the number of words produced correctly relative to the sample size, and 4. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD VARIABILITY, a measure of how often a child produces words in distinct phonological shapes. The central measure is the Phonological Mean Length of Utterance, which can be used to identify a child's stage of acquisition, to assess proximity to target words, and to evaluate the complexity of words. The value of the new measures will be demonstrated through preliminary applications to a range of contexts; i.e. monolingual children acquiring English (five children, 0;11 to 1;5), Cantonese (one child, 1;7), and Spanish (5 children, 2;2 to 2;11), bilingual children acquiring Hungarian-English (one child, 2;0) and Spanish-English (3 children, 2;4 to 2;11), children with phonological impairment (eighteen children, 2;11 to 5;3), and children with cochlear implants (six children, 4;5 to 7;11).

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)713-733
    Number of pages21
    JournalJournal of Child Language
    Volume29
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Nov 2002

    Fingerprint

    Word Production
    Whole Word
    Articulation Disorders
    Cochlear Implants
    Sample Size
    ability
    Proximity
    Proportion
    Values
    Mean Length of Utterance
    Phonological Impairment
    English-Spanish
    Cochlear Implant
    Bilingual children
    Correctness
    Phonological Acquisition

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Linguistics and Language
    • Language and Linguistics
    • Psychology(all)
    • Developmental and Educational Psychology
    • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

    Cite this

    The measurement of whole-word productions. / Ingram, David.

    In: Journal of Child Language, Vol. 29, No. 4, 11.2002, p. 713-733.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Ingram, David. / The measurement of whole-word productions. In: Journal of Child Language. 2002 ; Vol. 29, No. 4. pp. 713-733.
    @article{65d3388fa2ab44be9d6ef67e839f6a9a,
    title = "The measurement of whole-word productions",
    abstract = "Attempts to measure phonological acquisition have largely focused on segments, with less effort made to examine whole-word productions. This article proposes four measures designed to estimate a child's whole-word abilities: 1. the PHONOLOGICAL MEAN LENGTH OF UTTERANCE, a measure of whole-word complexity for both child and target words, 2. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD PROXIMITY, a measure of the proximity between the child's word and its target form, 3. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD CORRECTNESS, a measure of the number of words produced correctly relative to the sample size, and 4. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD VARIABILITY, a measure of how often a child produces words in distinct phonological shapes. The central measure is the Phonological Mean Length of Utterance, which can be used to identify a child's stage of acquisition, to assess proximity to target words, and to evaluate the complexity of words. The value of the new measures will be demonstrated through preliminary applications to a range of contexts; i.e. monolingual children acquiring English (five children, 0;11 to 1;5), Cantonese (one child, 1;7), and Spanish (5 children, 2;2 to 2;11), bilingual children acquiring Hungarian-English (one child, 2;0) and Spanish-English (3 children, 2;4 to 2;11), children with phonological impairment (eighteen children, 2;11 to 5;3), and children with cochlear implants (six children, 4;5 to 7;11).",
    author = "David Ingram",
    year = "2002",
    month = "11",
    doi = "10.1017/S0305000902005275",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "29",
    pages = "713--733",
    journal = "Journal of Child Language",
    issn = "0305-0009",
    publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
    number = "4",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The measurement of whole-word productions

    AU - Ingram, David

    PY - 2002/11

    Y1 - 2002/11

    N2 - Attempts to measure phonological acquisition have largely focused on segments, with less effort made to examine whole-word productions. This article proposes four measures designed to estimate a child's whole-word abilities: 1. the PHONOLOGICAL MEAN LENGTH OF UTTERANCE, a measure of whole-word complexity for both child and target words, 2. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD PROXIMITY, a measure of the proximity between the child's word and its target form, 3. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD CORRECTNESS, a measure of the number of words produced correctly relative to the sample size, and 4. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD VARIABILITY, a measure of how often a child produces words in distinct phonological shapes. The central measure is the Phonological Mean Length of Utterance, which can be used to identify a child's stage of acquisition, to assess proximity to target words, and to evaluate the complexity of words. The value of the new measures will be demonstrated through preliminary applications to a range of contexts; i.e. monolingual children acquiring English (five children, 0;11 to 1;5), Cantonese (one child, 1;7), and Spanish (5 children, 2;2 to 2;11), bilingual children acquiring Hungarian-English (one child, 2;0) and Spanish-English (3 children, 2;4 to 2;11), children with phonological impairment (eighteen children, 2;11 to 5;3), and children with cochlear implants (six children, 4;5 to 7;11).

    AB - Attempts to measure phonological acquisition have largely focused on segments, with less effort made to examine whole-word productions. This article proposes four measures designed to estimate a child's whole-word abilities: 1. the PHONOLOGICAL MEAN LENGTH OF UTTERANCE, a measure of whole-word complexity for both child and target words, 2. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD PROXIMITY, a measure of the proximity between the child's word and its target form, 3. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD CORRECTNESS, a measure of the number of words produced correctly relative to the sample size, and 4. the PROPORTION OF WHOLE-WORD VARIABILITY, a measure of how often a child produces words in distinct phonological shapes. The central measure is the Phonological Mean Length of Utterance, which can be used to identify a child's stage of acquisition, to assess proximity to target words, and to evaluate the complexity of words. The value of the new measures will be demonstrated through preliminary applications to a range of contexts; i.e. monolingual children acquiring English (five children, 0;11 to 1;5), Cantonese (one child, 1;7), and Spanish (5 children, 2;2 to 2;11), bilingual children acquiring Hungarian-English (one child, 2;0) and Spanish-English (3 children, 2;4 to 2;11), children with phonological impairment (eighteen children, 2;11 to 5;3), and children with cochlear implants (six children, 4;5 to 7;11).

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036851652&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036851652&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1017/S0305000902005275

    DO - 10.1017/S0305000902005275

    M3 - Article

    C2 - 12471970

    AN - SCOPUS:0036851652

    VL - 29

    SP - 713

    EP - 733

    JO - Journal of Child Language

    JF - Journal of Child Language

    SN - 0305-0009

    IS - 4

    ER -