The Low-Frequency Environment of the Murchison Widefield Array: Radio-Frequency Interference Analysis and Mitigation

A. R. Offringa, R. B. Wayth, N. Hurley-Walker, D. L. Kaplan, N. Barry, A. P. Beardsley, M. E. Bell, G. Bernardi, Judd Bowman, F. Briggs, J. R. Callingham, R. J. Cappallo, P. Carroll, A. A. Deshpande, J. S. Dillon, K. S. Dwarakanath, A. Ewall-Wice, L. Feng, B. Q. For, B. M. GaenslerL. J. Greenhill, P. Hancock, B. J. Hazelton, J. N. Hewitt, L. Hindson, Daniel Jacobs, M. Johnston-Hollitt, A. D. Kapińska, H. S. Kim, P. Kittiwisit, E. Lenc, J. Line, A. Loeb, C. J. Lonsdale, B. McKinley, S. R. McWhirter, D. A. Mitchell, M. F. Morales, E. Morgan, J. Morgan, A. R. Neben, D. Oberoi, S. M. Ord, S. Paul, B. Pindor, J. C. Pober, T. Prabu, P. Procopio, J. Riding, N. Udaya Shankar, S. Sethi, K. S. Srivani, L. Staveley-Smith, R. Subrahmanyan, I. S. Sullivan, M. Tegmark, N. Thyagarajan, S. J. Tingay, C. M. Trott, R. L. Webster, A. Williams, C. L. Williams, C. Wu, J. S. Wyithe, Q. Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72-231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array's radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere008
JournalPublications of the Astronomical Society of Australia
Volume32
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 16 2015

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radio frequency interference
mitigation
radio
low frequencies
analysis
ionospheric propagation
cleaners
radio telescopes
recommendations
night
frequency modulation

Keywords

  • instrumentation: interferometers
  • methods: observational
  • radio continuum: general
  • techniques: interferometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

The Low-Frequency Environment of the Murchison Widefield Array : Radio-Frequency Interference Analysis and Mitigation. / Offringa, A. R.; Wayth, R. B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Kaplan, D. L.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bell, M. E.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd; Briggs, F.; Callingham, J. R.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dillon, J. S.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; For, B. Q.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hindson, L.; Jacobs, Daniel; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kim, H. S.; Kittiwisit, P.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, S.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tegmark, M.; Thyagarajan, N.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S.; Zheng, Q.

In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Vol. 32, e008, 16.02.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Offringa, AR, Wayth, RB, Hurley-Walker, N, Kaplan, DL, Barry, N, Beardsley, AP, Bell, ME, Bernardi, G, Bowman, J, Briggs, F, Callingham, JR, Cappallo, RJ, Carroll, P, Deshpande, AA, Dillon, JS, Dwarakanath, KS, Ewall-Wice, A, Feng, L, For, BQ, Gaensler, BM, Greenhill, LJ, Hancock, P, Hazelton, BJ, Hewitt, JN, Hindson, L, Jacobs, D, Johnston-Hollitt, M, Kapińska, AD, Kim, HS, Kittiwisit, P, Lenc, E, Line, J, Loeb, A, Lonsdale, CJ, McKinley, B, McWhirter, SR, Mitchell, DA, Morales, MF, Morgan, E, Morgan, J, Neben, AR, Oberoi, D, Ord, SM, Paul, S, Pindor, B, Pober, JC, Prabu, T, Procopio, P, Riding, J, Udaya Shankar, N, Sethi, S, Srivani, KS, Staveley-Smith, L, Subrahmanyan, R, Sullivan, IS, Tegmark, M, Thyagarajan, N, Tingay, SJ, Trott, CM, Webster, RL, Williams, A, Williams, CL, Wu, C, Wyithe, JS & Zheng, Q 2015, 'The Low-Frequency Environment of the Murchison Widefield Array: Radio-Frequency Interference Analysis and Mitigation', Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, vol. 32, e008. https://doi.org/10.1017/pasa.2015.7
Offringa, A. R. ; Wayth, R. B. ; Hurley-Walker, N. ; Kaplan, D. L. ; Barry, N. ; Beardsley, A. P. ; Bell, M. E. ; Bernardi, G. ; Bowman, Judd ; Briggs, F. ; Callingham, J. R. ; Cappallo, R. J. ; Carroll, P. ; Deshpande, A. A. ; Dillon, J. S. ; Dwarakanath, K. S. ; Ewall-Wice, A. ; Feng, L. ; For, B. Q. ; Gaensler, B. M. ; Greenhill, L. J. ; Hancock, P. ; Hazelton, B. J. ; Hewitt, J. N. ; Hindson, L. ; Jacobs, Daniel ; Johnston-Hollitt, M. ; Kapińska, A. D. ; Kim, H. S. ; Kittiwisit, P. ; Lenc, E. ; Line, J. ; Loeb, A. ; Lonsdale, C. J. ; McKinley, B. ; McWhirter, S. R. ; Mitchell, D. A. ; Morales, M. F. ; Morgan, E. ; Morgan, J. ; Neben, A. R. ; Oberoi, D. ; Ord, S. M. ; Paul, S. ; Pindor, B. ; Pober, J. C. ; Prabu, T. ; Procopio, P. ; Riding, J. ; Udaya Shankar, N. ; Sethi, S. ; Srivani, K. S. ; Staveley-Smith, L. ; Subrahmanyan, R. ; Sullivan, I. S. ; Tegmark, M. ; Thyagarajan, N. ; Tingay, S. J. ; Trott, C. M. ; Webster, R. L. ; Williams, A. ; Williams, C. L. ; Wu, C. ; Wyithe, J. S. ; Zheng, Q. / The Low-Frequency Environment of the Murchison Widefield Array : Radio-Frequency Interference Analysis and Mitigation. In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia. 2015 ; Vol. 32.
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abstract = "The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72-231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1{\%} of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3{\%} of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array's radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The Low-Frequency Environment of the Murchison Widefield Array

T2 - Radio-Frequency Interference Analysis and Mitigation

AU - Offringa, A. R.

AU - Wayth, R. B.

AU - Hurley-Walker, N.

AU - Kaplan, D. L.

AU - Barry, N.

AU - Beardsley, A. P.

AU - Bell, M. E.

AU - Bernardi, G.

AU - Bowman, Judd

AU - Briggs, F.

AU - Callingham, J. R.

AU - Cappallo, R. J.

AU - Carroll, P.

AU - Deshpande, A. A.

AU - Dillon, J. S.

AU - Dwarakanath, K. S.

AU - Ewall-Wice, A.

AU - Feng, L.

AU - For, B. Q.

AU - Gaensler, B. M.

AU - Greenhill, L. J.

AU - Hancock, P.

AU - Hazelton, B. J.

AU - Hewitt, J. N.

AU - Hindson, L.

AU - Jacobs, Daniel

AU - Johnston-Hollitt, M.

AU - Kapińska, A. D.

AU - Kim, H. S.

AU - Kittiwisit, P.

AU - Lenc, E.

AU - Line, J.

AU - Loeb, A.

AU - Lonsdale, C. J.

AU - McKinley, B.

AU - McWhirter, S. R.

AU - Mitchell, D. A.

AU - Morales, M. F.

AU - Morgan, E.

AU - Morgan, J.

AU - Neben, A. R.

AU - Oberoi, D.

AU - Ord, S. M.

AU - Paul, S.

AU - Pindor, B.

AU - Pober, J. C.

AU - Prabu, T.

AU - Procopio, P.

AU - Riding, J.

AU - Udaya Shankar, N.

AU - Sethi, S.

AU - Srivani, K. S.

AU - Staveley-Smith, L.

AU - Subrahmanyan, R.

AU - Sullivan, I. S.

AU - Tegmark, M.

AU - Thyagarajan, N.

AU - Tingay, S. J.

AU - Trott, C. M.

AU - Webster, R. L.

AU - Williams, A.

AU - Williams, C. L.

AU - Wu, C.

AU - Wyithe, J. S.

AU - Zheng, Q.

PY - 2015/2/16

Y1 - 2015/2/16

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AB - The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72-231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array's radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).

KW - instrumentation: interferometers

KW - methods: observational

KW - radio continuum: general

KW - techniques: interferometric

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