The flow structure of jets from transient sources and implications for modeling short-duration explosive volcanic eruptions

K. N. Chojnicki, Amanda Clarke, Ronald Adrian, J. C. Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We used laboratory experiments to examine the rise process in neutrally buoyant jets that resulted from an unsteady supply of momentum, a condition that defines plumes from discrete Vulcanian and Strombolian-style eruptions. We simultaneously measured the analog-jet discharge rate (the supply rate of momentum) and the analog-jet internal velocity distribution (a consequence of momentum transport and dilution). Then, we examined the changes in the analog-jet velocity distribution over time to assess the impact of the supply-rate variations on the momentum-driven rise dynamics. We found that the analog-jet velocity distribution changes significantly and quickly as the supply rate varied, such that the whole-field distribution at any instant differed considerably from the time average. We also found that entrainment varied in space and over time with instantaneous entrainment coefficient values ranging from 0 to 0.93 in an individual unsteady jet. Consequently, we conclude that supply-rate variations exert first-order control over jet dynamics, and therefore cannot be neglected in models without compromising their capability to predict large-scale eruption behavior. These findings emphasize the fundamental differences between unsteady and steady jet dynamics, and show clearly that: (i) variations in source momentum flux directly control the dynamics of the resulting flow; (ii) impulsive flows driven by sources of varying flux cannot reasonably be approximated by quasi-steady flow models. New modeling approaches capable of describing the time-dependent properties of transient volcanic eruption plumes are needed before their trajectory, dilution, and stability can be reliably computed for hazards management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4831-4845
Number of pages15
JournalGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Volume15
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Volcanic Eruptions
flow structure
Flow structure
volcanic eruptions
explosive
volcanic eruption
momentum
Momentum
modeling
Velocity distribution
analogs
velocity distribution
entrainment
Dilution
plumes
dilution
plume
Fluxes
hazard management
steady flow

Keywords

  • experimental volcanism
  • explosive volcanism
  • impulsive jets
  • transient volcanic plumes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics

Cite this

The flow structure of jets from transient sources and implications for modeling short-duration explosive volcanic eruptions. / Chojnicki, K. N.; Clarke, Amanda; Adrian, Ronald; Phillips, J. C.

In: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 15, No. 12, 2014, p. 4831-4845.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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