The enzymatic oxidation of graphene oxide

Gregg P. Kotchey, Brett L. Allen, Harindra Vedala, Naveena Yanamala, Alexander A. Kapralov, Yulia Y. Tyurina, Judith Klein-Seetharaman, Valerian E. Kagan, Alexander Star

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

286 Scopus citations

Abstract

Two-dimensional graphitic carbon is a new material with many emerging applications, and studying its chemical properties is an important goal. Here, we reported a new phenomenon-the enzymatic oxidation of a single layer of graphitic carbon by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (∼40 μM), HRP catalyzed the oxidation of graphene oxide, which resulted in the formation of holes on its basal plane. During the same period of analysis, HRP failed to oxidize chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The enzymatic oxidation was characterized by Raman, ultraviolet-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Computational docking studies indicated that HRP was preferentially bound to the basal plane rather than the edge for both graphene oxide and RGO. Owing to the more dynamic nature of HRP on graphene oxide, the heme active site of HRP was in closer proximity to graphene oxide compared to RGO, thereby facilitating the oxidation of the basal plane of graphene oxide. We also studied the electronic properties of the reduced intermediate product, holey reduced graphene oxide (hRGO), using field-effect transistor (FET) measurements. While RGO exhibited a V-shaped transfer characteristic similar to a single layer of graphene that was attributed to its zero band gap, hRGO demonstrated a p-type semiconducting behavior with a positive shift in the Dirac points. This p-type behavior rendered hRGO, which can be conceptualized as interconnected graphene nanoribbons, as a potentially attractive material for FET sensors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2098-2108
Number of pages11
JournalACS nano
Volume5
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 22 2011
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • field-effect transistor
  • graphene
  • microscopy
  • oxidation
  • peroxidase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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