The environments of U.S. R&D laboratories: political and market influences

Barry Bozeman, Michael Crow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


R&D laboratories in the United States have during the past decade undergone much structural and environmental change. Much of this change has been in response to public policy initiatives and changing markets. One result of the changing environments of R&D laboratories is that traditional sector-based (government, industry, university) classification of laboratories tells us little about their structure and behavior. This study based on survey data derived from 966 U.S. R&D laboratories, develops an 'environmental input taxonomy,' based not on sector but on the mix of political and market influence on laboratories. This taxonomy is examined in connection with three central policy issues: amount of cooperative research, red tape and bureaucratization, and laboratory output. Traditonal sector classification accounts well for red tape, but the environmental input taxonomy provides additional insights into laboratories' scientific and technical output and cooperative research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-56
Number of pages32
JournalPolicy Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 1990
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Development
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Sciences(all)
  • Public Administration
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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