This study examined the effects of teacher self-efficacy, education, and years of experience on observed classroom practices across 2 dimensions-teacher support for student learning and time in academics-as they related to fifth-grade students' (n = 1,043) literacy skills. To address these issues, the study used longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Teacher self-efficacy is assessed on a survey that indicates the extent to which teachers believe they can make a difference in their students' achievement. Structural equation modeling results indicated that teachers with a higher sense of self-efficacy showed more support and provided a more positive classroom environment than did teachers with lower self-efficacy; in addition, their students had stronger literacy skills. Teachers with greater self-efficacy and more years of experience spent less time in academics.
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