The effects of proximal withdrawal states on job attitudes, job searching, intent to leave, and employee turnover

Junchao Jason Li, Thomas W. Lee, Terence R. Mitchell, Peter Hom, Rodger W. Griffeth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present the first major test of proximal withdrawal states theory (PWST; Hom, Mitchell, Lee, & Griffeth, 2012). In addition, we develop and test new ideas to demonstrate how PWST improves our understanding and prediction of employee turnover. Across 2 studies, we corroborate that reluctant stayers (those who want to leave but have to stay) are similar to enthusiastic leavers (those who want to leave and can leave) in affective commitment, job satisfaction, and job embeddedness, and that reluctant leavers (those who want to stay but have to leave) are similar to enthusiastic stayers (those who want to stay and can stay) on these dimensions. We find that job satisfaction and job embeddedness more strongly influence the intent to leave and job search behavior for enthusiastic stayers and leavers than for reluctant stayers and leavers. More important, we show that for those experiencing low control over their preference for leaving or staying (i.e., reluctant stayers and leavers), traditional variables such as job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave are poor predictors of their turnover behavior. We further demonstrate that focusing on enthusiastic stayers and leavers can significantly enhance the accuracy of job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave for predicting actual employee turnover.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1436-1456
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Volume101
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Fingerprint

Personnel Turnover
Job Satisfaction

Keywords

  • Job embeddedness
  • Job satisfaction
  • Job searching
  • Proximal withdrawal state
  • Turnover

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

Cite this

The effects of proximal withdrawal states on job attitudes, job searching, intent to leave, and employee turnover. / Li, Junchao Jason; Lee, Thomas W.; Mitchell, Terence R.; Hom, Peter; Griffeth, Rodger W.

In: Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 101, No. 10, 01.10.2016, p. 1436-1456.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Li, Junchao Jason ; Lee, Thomas W. ; Mitchell, Terence R. ; Hom, Peter ; Griffeth, Rodger W. / The effects of proximal withdrawal states on job attitudes, job searching, intent to leave, and employee turnover. In: Journal of Applied Psychology. 2016 ; Vol. 101, No. 10. pp. 1436-1456.
@article{7b2953931db449ddb81bf78823891287,
title = "The effects of proximal withdrawal states on job attitudes, job searching, intent to leave, and employee turnover",
abstract = "We present the first major test of proximal withdrawal states theory (PWST; Hom, Mitchell, Lee, & Griffeth, 2012). In addition, we develop and test new ideas to demonstrate how PWST improves our understanding and prediction of employee turnover. Across 2 studies, we corroborate that reluctant stayers (those who want to leave but have to stay) are similar to enthusiastic leavers (those who want to leave and can leave) in affective commitment, job satisfaction, and job embeddedness, and that reluctant leavers (those who want to stay but have to leave) are similar to enthusiastic stayers (those who want to stay and can stay) on these dimensions. We find that job satisfaction and job embeddedness more strongly influence the intent to leave and job search behavior for enthusiastic stayers and leavers than for reluctant stayers and leavers. More important, we show that for those experiencing low control over their preference for leaving or staying (i.e., reluctant stayers and leavers), traditional variables such as job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave are poor predictors of their turnover behavior. We further demonstrate that focusing on enthusiastic stayers and leavers can significantly enhance the accuracy of job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave for predicting actual employee turnover.",
keywords = "Job embeddedness, Job satisfaction, Job searching, Proximal withdrawal state, Turnover",
author = "Li, {Junchao Jason} and Lee, {Thomas W.} and Mitchell, {Terence R.} and Peter Hom and Griffeth, {Rodger W.}",
year = "2016",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/apl0000147",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "101",
pages = "1436--1456",
journal = "Journal of Applied Psychology",
issn = "0021-9010",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effects of proximal withdrawal states on job attitudes, job searching, intent to leave, and employee turnover

AU - Li, Junchao Jason

AU - Lee, Thomas W.

AU - Mitchell, Terence R.

AU - Hom, Peter

AU - Griffeth, Rodger W.

PY - 2016/10/1

Y1 - 2016/10/1

N2 - We present the first major test of proximal withdrawal states theory (PWST; Hom, Mitchell, Lee, & Griffeth, 2012). In addition, we develop and test new ideas to demonstrate how PWST improves our understanding and prediction of employee turnover. Across 2 studies, we corroborate that reluctant stayers (those who want to leave but have to stay) are similar to enthusiastic leavers (those who want to leave and can leave) in affective commitment, job satisfaction, and job embeddedness, and that reluctant leavers (those who want to stay but have to leave) are similar to enthusiastic stayers (those who want to stay and can stay) on these dimensions. We find that job satisfaction and job embeddedness more strongly influence the intent to leave and job search behavior for enthusiastic stayers and leavers than for reluctant stayers and leavers. More important, we show that for those experiencing low control over their preference for leaving or staying (i.e., reluctant stayers and leavers), traditional variables such as job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave are poor predictors of their turnover behavior. We further demonstrate that focusing on enthusiastic stayers and leavers can significantly enhance the accuracy of job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave for predicting actual employee turnover.

AB - We present the first major test of proximal withdrawal states theory (PWST; Hom, Mitchell, Lee, & Griffeth, 2012). In addition, we develop and test new ideas to demonstrate how PWST improves our understanding and prediction of employee turnover. Across 2 studies, we corroborate that reluctant stayers (those who want to leave but have to stay) are similar to enthusiastic leavers (those who want to leave and can leave) in affective commitment, job satisfaction, and job embeddedness, and that reluctant leavers (those who want to stay but have to leave) are similar to enthusiastic stayers (those who want to stay and can stay) on these dimensions. We find that job satisfaction and job embeddedness more strongly influence the intent to leave and job search behavior for enthusiastic stayers and leavers than for reluctant stayers and leavers. More important, we show that for those experiencing low control over their preference for leaving or staying (i.e., reluctant stayers and leavers), traditional variables such as job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave are poor predictors of their turnover behavior. We further demonstrate that focusing on enthusiastic stayers and leavers can significantly enhance the accuracy of job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave for predicting actual employee turnover.

KW - Job embeddedness

KW - Job satisfaction

KW - Job searching

KW - Proximal withdrawal state

KW - Turnover

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84990057582&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84990057582&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/apl0000147

DO - 10.1037/apl0000147

M3 - Article

C2 - 27504652

AN - SCOPUS:84990057582

VL - 101

SP - 1436

EP - 1456

JO - Journal of Applied Psychology

JF - Journal of Applied Psychology

SN - 0021-9010

IS - 10

ER -