The effectiveness of a highly explicit, teacher-directed strategy instruction routine: Changing the writing performance of students with learning disabilities

Gary A. Troia, Steve Graham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Scopus citations


This study examined the effectiveness of a highly explicit, teacher-directed instructional routine used to teach three planning strategies for writing to fourth and fifth graders with learning disabilities. In comparison to peers who received process writing instruction, children who were taught the three planning strategies - goal setting, brainstorming, and organizing - spent more time planning stories in advance of writing and produced stories that were qualitatively better. One month after the end of instruction, students who had been taught the strategies not only maintained their advantage in story quality but also produced longer stories than those produced by their peers who were taught process writing. However, the highly explicit, teacher-directed strategy instructional routine used in this study did not promote transfer to an uninstructed genre, persuasive essay writing. These findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to effective writing instruction practices for students with learning disabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)290-305
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Learning Disabilities
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Education
  • Health Professions(all)

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