The effect of preparation procedures on the morphology of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis

Yan Liu, John D. Simon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The structure of melanin extracted from the ink sac of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was examined for different methods of isolation and purification of the pigment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Sepia eumelanin prepared by different procedures establish that multi-μm-sized aggregates reported by previous workers are generated by their sample preparation, and that the dominant constituents of Sepia melanin are ∼150 nm spherical granules. Brunauer-EmmettTeller (BET) measurements reveal that Sepia eumelanin from Sigma (prepared by spray drying the pigment) has a surface area of 14.3 m2/g. Pigment extracted directly from the fresh ink sac and then freeze-dried has a surface area of 21.5 m2/g, while CO2-supercritically dried has a surface area of 37.5 m2/g. This is consistent with SEM images showing that the process of freeze-drying produces aggregates, but to a lesser extent than spray drying. Supercritical drying of the sample produces suspensions of the individual ∼150 nm granule, which is more reflective of the natural pigment. BrunauerEmmett-Teller surface area analysis and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volume analysis indicate that the surface of the granules is not smooth and the interior of the granules is not porous, but rather the aggregates of granules are porous. Ultra-high resolution SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show the granules are easily deformed and are comprised of smaller constituents. De-aggregation of the granules by sonication and ultra-filtration reveal a range of structures depending on the pore size of the membrane used. The implications of these results on quantifying photochemical properties and kinetic reaction rate constants of melanin are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)72-80
Number of pages9
JournalPigment Cell Research
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Sepia
Sepia officinalis
Ink
Melanins
melanin
granules
Pigments
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Spray drying
surface area
pigments
eumelanin
Scanning electron microscopy
scanning electron microscopy
spray drying
Drying
Decapodiformes
Sonication
Freeze Drying
Atomic Force Microscopy

Keywords

  • Atomic force microscopy
  • Eumelanin
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Sepia
  • Structural characterization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Developmental Biology

Cite this

The effect of preparation procedures on the morphology of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis. / Liu, Yan; Simon, John D.

In: Pigment Cell Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, 02.2003, p. 72-80.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{4ecd0384ac1242a5bff6f0b9be328f66,
title = "The effect of preparation procedures on the morphology of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis",
abstract = "The structure of melanin extracted from the ink sac of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was examined for different methods of isolation and purification of the pigment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Sepia eumelanin prepared by different procedures establish that multi-μm-sized aggregates reported by previous workers are generated by their sample preparation, and that the dominant constituents of Sepia melanin are ∼150 nm spherical granules. Brunauer-EmmettTeller (BET) measurements reveal that Sepia eumelanin from Sigma (prepared by spray drying the pigment) has a surface area of 14.3 m2/g. Pigment extracted directly from the fresh ink sac and then freeze-dried has a surface area of 21.5 m2/g, while CO2-supercritically dried has a surface area of 37.5 m2/g. This is consistent with SEM images showing that the process of freeze-drying produces aggregates, but to a lesser extent than spray drying. Supercritical drying of the sample produces suspensions of the individual ∼150 nm granule, which is more reflective of the natural pigment. BrunauerEmmett-Teller surface area analysis and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volume analysis indicate that the surface of the granules is not smooth and the interior of the granules is not porous, but rather the aggregates of granules are porous. Ultra-high resolution SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show the granules are easily deformed and are comprised of smaller constituents. De-aggregation of the granules by sonication and ultra-filtration reveal a range of structures depending on the pore size of the membrane used. The implications of these results on quantifying photochemical properties and kinetic reaction rate constants of melanin are discussed.",
keywords = "Atomic force microscopy, Eumelanin, Scanning electron microscopy, Sepia, Structural characterization",
author = "Yan Liu and Simon, {John D.}",
year = "2003",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1034/j.1600-0749.2003.00009.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "72--80",
journal = "Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research",
issn = "1755-1471",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of preparation procedures on the morphology of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis

AU - Liu, Yan

AU - Simon, John D.

PY - 2003/2

Y1 - 2003/2

N2 - The structure of melanin extracted from the ink sac of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was examined for different methods of isolation and purification of the pigment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Sepia eumelanin prepared by different procedures establish that multi-μm-sized aggregates reported by previous workers are generated by their sample preparation, and that the dominant constituents of Sepia melanin are ∼150 nm spherical granules. Brunauer-EmmettTeller (BET) measurements reveal that Sepia eumelanin from Sigma (prepared by spray drying the pigment) has a surface area of 14.3 m2/g. Pigment extracted directly from the fresh ink sac and then freeze-dried has a surface area of 21.5 m2/g, while CO2-supercritically dried has a surface area of 37.5 m2/g. This is consistent with SEM images showing that the process of freeze-drying produces aggregates, but to a lesser extent than spray drying. Supercritical drying of the sample produces suspensions of the individual ∼150 nm granule, which is more reflective of the natural pigment. BrunauerEmmett-Teller surface area analysis and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volume analysis indicate that the surface of the granules is not smooth and the interior of the granules is not porous, but rather the aggregates of granules are porous. Ultra-high resolution SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show the granules are easily deformed and are comprised of smaller constituents. De-aggregation of the granules by sonication and ultra-filtration reveal a range of structures depending on the pore size of the membrane used. The implications of these results on quantifying photochemical properties and kinetic reaction rate constants of melanin are discussed.

AB - The structure of melanin extracted from the ink sac of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was examined for different methods of isolation and purification of the pigment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Sepia eumelanin prepared by different procedures establish that multi-μm-sized aggregates reported by previous workers are generated by their sample preparation, and that the dominant constituents of Sepia melanin are ∼150 nm spherical granules. Brunauer-EmmettTeller (BET) measurements reveal that Sepia eumelanin from Sigma (prepared by spray drying the pigment) has a surface area of 14.3 m2/g. Pigment extracted directly from the fresh ink sac and then freeze-dried has a surface area of 21.5 m2/g, while CO2-supercritically dried has a surface area of 37.5 m2/g. This is consistent with SEM images showing that the process of freeze-drying produces aggregates, but to a lesser extent than spray drying. Supercritical drying of the sample produces suspensions of the individual ∼150 nm granule, which is more reflective of the natural pigment. BrunauerEmmett-Teller surface area analysis and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volume analysis indicate that the surface of the granules is not smooth and the interior of the granules is not porous, but rather the aggregates of granules are porous. Ultra-high resolution SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show the granules are easily deformed and are comprised of smaller constituents. De-aggregation of the granules by sonication and ultra-filtration reveal a range of structures depending on the pore size of the membrane used. The implications of these results on quantifying photochemical properties and kinetic reaction rate constants of melanin are discussed.

KW - Atomic force microscopy

KW - Eumelanin

KW - Scanning electron microscopy

KW - Sepia

KW - Structural characterization

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0037568439&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0037568439&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1034/j.1600-0749.2003.00009.x

DO - 10.1034/j.1600-0749.2003.00009.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 12519128

AN - SCOPUS:0037568439

VL - 16

SP - 72

EP - 80

JO - Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

JF - Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research

SN - 1755-1471

IS - 1

ER -