Aims: The molecular mechanisms by which muraglitazar (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ/α agonist) improves insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetes mellitus are not fully understood. We hypothesized that muraglitazar would increase expression of 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase and genes involved in adiponectin signalling, free fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Methods: Sixteen participants with Type 2 diabetes received muraglitazar, 5 mg/day (n = 12) or placebo (n = 4). Before and after 16 weeks, participants had vastus lateralis muscle biopsy followed by 180 min euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Results: Muraglitazar increased plasma adiponectin (9.0 ± 1.1 to 17.8 ± 1.5 μg/ml, P < 0.05), while no significant change was observed with placebo. After 16 weeks with muraglitazar, fasting plasma glucose declined by 31%, fasting plasma insulin decreased by 44%, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal increased by 81%, HbA1c decreased by 21% and plasma triglyceride decreased by 39% (all P < 0.05). Muraglitazar increased mRNA levels of 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase, adiponectin receptor 1, adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha and multiple genes involved in mitochondrial function and fat oxidation. In the placebo group, there were no significant changes in expression of these genes. Conclusions: Muraglitazar increases plasma adiponectin, stimulates muscle 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase expression and increases expression of genes involved in adiponectin signalling, mitochondrial function and fat oxidation. These changes represent important cellular mechanisms by which dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists improve skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism