The effect of exercise, training, and inactivity on insulin sensitivity in diabetics and their relatives: What is new?

Torben Østergård, Niels Jessen, Ole Schmitz, Lawrence J. Mandarino

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    22 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Insulin resistance is a hallmark characteristic of type 2 diabetes. However, in healthy first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetics, insulin resistance is often present years before glucose intolerance or diabetes becomes clinically manifest. The mechanisms of insulin resistance involve conditions leading to an increased supply of fatty acids (e.g., high energy intake, obesity) and conditions in which the degradation/oxidation of muscular fatty acids is impaired. Several large-scale studies have documented the fact that increased physical activity can reduce or at least postpone the development of type 2 diabetes, and low physical fitness is a clear independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms responsible for the improvement in insulin sensitivity after exercise training have been studied extensively, but are not fully understood. This review focuses on insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and, in particular, its relation to changes in aerobic fitness in type 2 diabetics and their first-degree relatives.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)541-548
    Number of pages8
    JournalApplied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
    Volume32
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jun 2007

    Keywords

    • Endothelial dysfunction
    • Exercise
    • Insulin resistance
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Type 2 diabetes

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
    • Physiology
    • Nutrition and Dietetics
    • Physiology (medical)

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