The development of a physical education teachers' physical activity self-efficacy instrument

Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


In the present investigation a questionnaire was developed to assess physical education teachers' self-efficacy for teaching classes in which their students were engaged in high levels of physical activity (i.e., at least 50% of class time). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in the development of a 16-item, 4-factor, multidimensional physical education teachers' physical activity self-efficacy scale (PETPAS) that produced reliable and valid scores. The Student factor reflected teachers' efficacy for managing students who didn't enjoy or value physical activity. The Time factor was indicative of teachers' efficacy when they didn't have enough time to teach. The Space factor reflected teachers' efficacy perceptions when they had difficulty teaching because of a lack of space. Finally, the Institution factor was composed of questions that represented teachers' efficacy beliefs for overcoming a lack of institutional support. The results of the current study provide preliminary psychometric support for the PETPAS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)219-232
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Teaching in Physical Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Health
  • Psychology
  • Social cognitive theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Education


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