The determination of Ti, Mn and Fe oxidation states in minerals by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

Max T. Otten, Barbara Miner, James H. Rask, P R Buseck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

49 Scopus citations

Abstract

Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) as a technique for determining transition-element oxidation states offers several advantages over other methods. Chemical shifts as a function of oxidation state were determined for Ti3+-Ti4+ (2 eV), Mn2+-Mn4+ (3 eV) and Fe2+-Fe3+ (2 eV). The edge energies remain the same for a particular oxidation state, irrespective of the sample, confirming that EELS can be applied to oxidation-state determinations. Several experimental problems were encountered: poor edge resolution at low transition-element contents, difficulties in detecting mixed oxidation states, and in situ oxidation of hydrous minerals, probably through hydrogen loss.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)285-289
Number of pages5
JournalUltramicroscopy
Volume18
Issue number1-4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1985

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation

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