The bilevel structure of the outcome questionnaire-45

Jamie L. Bludworth, Terence Tracey, Cynthia Glidden-Tracey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


The structure of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (Lambert et al., 2001) was examined in a sample of 1,100 university counseling center clients using confirmatory factor analysis. Specifically, the relative fit of 1-factor, 3-factor orthogonal, 3-factor oblique, 4-factor hierarchical, and 4-factor bilevel models were examined. Although the 3-factor oblique, 4-factor hierarchical, and 4-factor bilevel models fit the data well, the 4-factor bilevel model fit the data best. The results provided support for the fit of the 4-factor bilevel model where each item loads on 1 of the 3 independent scales of Symptom Distress, Social Role Performance, and Interpersonal Relations, in addition to a nonoverlapping general distress factor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)350-355
Number of pages6
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010


  • Bilevel structure
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Outcome Questionnaire-45 structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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