The afterglows of Swift-era gamma-ray bursts. I. Comparing pre-Swift and Swift-era long/soft (type II) GRB optical afterglows

D. A. Kann, S. Klose, B. Zhang, D. Malesani, E. Nakar, A. Pozanenko, A. C. Wilson, Nathaniel Butler, P. Jakobsson, S. Schulze, M. Andreev, L. A. Antonelli, I. F. Bikmaev, V. Biryukov, M. Böttcher, R. A. Burenin, J. M Castro Cerón, A. J. Castro-Tirado, G. Chincarini, B. E. CobbS. Covino, P. D'Avanzo, V. D'Elia, M. Della Valle, A. De Ugarte Postigo, Yu Efimov, P. Ferrero, D. Fugazza, J. P U Fynbo, M. Gålfalk, F. Grundahl, J. Gorosabel, S. Gupta, S. Guziy, B. Hafizov, J. Hjorth, K. Holhjem, M. Ibrahimov, M. Im, G. L. Israel, M. Jelainek, B. L. Jensen, R. Karimov, I. M. Khamitov, Ü Kiziloǧlu, E. Klunko, P. Kubánek, A. S. Kutyrev, P. Laursen, A. J. Levan, F. Mannucci, C. M. Martin, A. Mescheryakov, N. Mirabal, J. P. Norris, J. E. Ovaldsen, D. Paraficz, E. Pavlenko, S. Piranomonte, A. Rossi, V. Rumyantsev, R. Salinas, A. Sergeev, D. Sharapov, J. Sollerman, B. Stecklum, L. Stella, G. Tagliaferri, N. R. Tanvir, J. Telting, V. Testa, A. C. Updike, A. Volnova, D. Watson, K. Wiersema, D. Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

207 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have gathered optical photometry data from the literature on a large sample of Swift-era gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows including GRBs up to 2009 September, for a total of 76 GRBs, and present an additional three pre-Swift GRBs not included in an earlier sample. Furthermore, we publish 840 additional new photometry data points on a total of 42 GRB afterglows, including large data sets for GRBs 050319, 050408, 050802, 050820A, 050922C, 060418, 080413A, and 080810. We analyzed the light curves of all GRBs in the sample and derived spectral energy distributions for the sample with the best data quality, allowing us to estimate the host-galaxy extinction. We transformed the afterglow light curves into an extinction-corrected z = 1 system and compared their luminosities with a sample of pre-Swift afterglows. The results of a former study, which showed that GRB afterglows clustered and exhibited a bimodal distribution in luminosity space, are weakened by the larger sample. We found that the luminosity distribution of the two afterglow samples (Swift-era and pre-Swift) is very similar, and that a subsample for which we were not able to estimate the extinction, which is fainter than the main sample, can be explained by assuming a moderate amount of line-of-sight host extinction. We derived bolometric isotropic energies for all GRBs in our sample, and found only a tentative correlation between the prompt energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at 1 day after the GRB in the z = 1 system. A comparative study of the optical luminosities of GRB afterglows with echelle spectra (which show a high number of foreground absorbing systems) and those without, reveals no indication that the former are statistically significantly more luminous. Furthermore, we propose the existence of an upper ceiling on afterglow luminosities and study the luminosity distribution at early times, which was not accessible before the advent of the Swift satellite. Most GRBs feature afterglows that are dominated by the forward shock from early times on. Finally, we present the first indications of a class of long GRBs, which form a bridge between the typical highluminosity, high-redshift events and nearby low-luminosity events (which are also associated with spectroscopic supernovae) in terms of energetics and observed redshift distribution, indicating a continuous distribution overall.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1513-1558
Number of pages46
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume720
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 10 2010
Externally publishedYes

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afterglows
gamma ray bursts
luminosity
extinction
light curve
photometry
energy
indication
data quality
ceilings
distribution
comparative study
estimates
spectral energy distribution
energetics
line of sight
supernovae
shock
galaxies

Keywords

  • Dust, extinction
  • Gamma-ray burst: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

The afterglows of Swift-era gamma-ray bursts. I. Comparing pre-Swift and Swift-era long/soft (type II) GRB optical afterglows. / Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Zhang, B.; Malesani, D.; Nakar, E.; Pozanenko, A.; Wilson, A. C.; Butler, Nathaniel; Jakobsson, P.; Schulze, S.; Andreev, M.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Biryukov, V.; Böttcher, M.; Burenin, R. A.; Cerón, J. M Castro; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chincarini, G.; Cobb, B. E.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Valle, M. Della; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Efimov, Yu; Ferrero, P.; Fugazza, D.; Fynbo, J. P U; Gålfalk, M.; Grundahl, F.; Gorosabel, J.; Gupta, S.; Guziy, S.; Hafizov, B.; Hjorth, J.; Holhjem, K.; Ibrahimov, M.; Im, M.; Israel, G. L.; Jelainek, M.; Jensen, B. L.; Karimov, R.; Khamitov, I. M.; Kiziloǧlu, Ü; Klunko, E.; Kubánek, P.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Laursen, P.; Levan, A. J.; Mannucci, F.; Martin, C. M.; Mescheryakov, A.; Mirabal, N.; Norris, J. P.; Ovaldsen, J. E.; Paraficz, D.; Pavlenko, E.; Piranomonte, S.; Rossi, A.; Rumyantsev, V.; Salinas, R.; Sergeev, A.; Sharapov, D.; Sollerman, J.; Stecklum, B.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; Telting, J.; Testa, V.; Updike, A. C.; Volnova, A.; Watson, D.; Wiersema, K.; Xu, D.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 720, No. 2, 10.09.2010, p. 1513-1558.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kann, DA, Klose, S, Zhang, B, Malesani, D, Nakar, E, Pozanenko, A, Wilson, AC, Butler, N, Jakobsson, P, Schulze, S, Andreev, M, Antonelli, LA, Bikmaev, IF, Biryukov, V, Böttcher, M, Burenin, RA, Cerón, JMC, Castro-Tirado, AJ, Chincarini, G, Cobb, BE, Covino, S, D'Avanzo, P, D'Elia, V, Valle, MD, De Ugarte Postigo, A, Efimov, Y, Ferrero, P, Fugazza, D, Fynbo, JPU, Gålfalk, M, Grundahl, F, Gorosabel, J, Gupta, S, Guziy, S, Hafizov, B, Hjorth, J, Holhjem, K, Ibrahimov, M, Im, M, Israel, GL, Jelainek, M, Jensen, BL, Karimov, R, Khamitov, IM, Kiziloǧlu, Ü, Klunko, E, Kubánek, P, Kutyrev, AS, Laursen, P, Levan, AJ, Mannucci, F, Martin, CM, Mescheryakov, A, Mirabal, N, Norris, JP, Ovaldsen, JE, Paraficz, D, Pavlenko, E, Piranomonte, S, Rossi, A, Rumyantsev, V, Salinas, R, Sergeev, A, Sharapov, D, Sollerman, J, Stecklum, B, Stella, L, Tagliaferri, G, Tanvir, NR, Telting, J, Testa, V, Updike, AC, Volnova, A, Watson, D, Wiersema, K & Xu, D 2010, 'The afterglows of Swift-era gamma-ray bursts. I. Comparing pre-Swift and Swift-era long/soft (type II) GRB optical afterglows', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 720, no. 2, pp. 1513-1558. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/720/2/1513
Kann, D. A. ; Klose, S. ; Zhang, B. ; Malesani, D. ; Nakar, E. ; Pozanenko, A. ; Wilson, A. C. ; Butler, Nathaniel ; Jakobsson, P. ; Schulze, S. ; Andreev, M. ; Antonelli, L. A. ; Bikmaev, I. F. ; Biryukov, V. ; Böttcher, M. ; Burenin, R. A. ; Cerón, J. M Castro ; Castro-Tirado, A. J. ; Chincarini, G. ; Cobb, B. E. ; Covino, S. ; D'Avanzo, P. ; D'Elia, V. ; Valle, M. Della ; De Ugarte Postigo, A. ; Efimov, Yu ; Ferrero, P. ; Fugazza, D. ; Fynbo, J. P U ; Gålfalk, M. ; Grundahl, F. ; Gorosabel, J. ; Gupta, S. ; Guziy, S. ; Hafizov, B. ; Hjorth, J. ; Holhjem, K. ; Ibrahimov, M. ; Im, M. ; Israel, G. L. ; Jelainek, M. ; Jensen, B. L. ; Karimov, R. ; Khamitov, I. M. ; Kiziloǧlu, Ü ; Klunko, E. ; Kubánek, P. ; Kutyrev, A. S. ; Laursen, P. ; Levan, A. J. ; Mannucci, F. ; Martin, C. M. ; Mescheryakov, A. ; Mirabal, N. ; Norris, J. P. ; Ovaldsen, J. E. ; Paraficz, D. ; Pavlenko, E. ; Piranomonte, S. ; Rossi, A. ; Rumyantsev, V. ; Salinas, R. ; Sergeev, A. ; Sharapov, D. ; Sollerman, J. ; Stecklum, B. ; Stella, L. ; Tagliaferri, G. ; Tanvir, N. R. ; Telting, J. ; Testa, V. ; Updike, A. C. ; Volnova, A. ; Watson, D. ; Wiersema, K. ; Xu, D. / The afterglows of Swift-era gamma-ray bursts. I. Comparing pre-Swift and Swift-era long/soft (type II) GRB optical afterglows. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2010 ; Vol. 720, No. 2. pp. 1513-1558.
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abstract = "We have gathered optical photometry data from the literature on a large sample of Swift-era gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows including GRBs up to 2009 September, for a total of 76 GRBs, and present an additional three pre-Swift GRBs not included in an earlier sample. Furthermore, we publish 840 additional new photometry data points on a total of 42 GRB afterglows, including large data sets for GRBs 050319, 050408, 050802, 050820A, 050922C, 060418, 080413A, and 080810. We analyzed the light curves of all GRBs in the sample and derived spectral energy distributions for the sample with the best data quality, allowing us to estimate the host-galaxy extinction. We transformed the afterglow light curves into an extinction-corrected z = 1 system and compared their luminosities with a sample of pre-Swift afterglows. The results of a former study, which showed that GRB afterglows clustered and exhibited a bimodal distribution in luminosity space, are weakened by the larger sample. We found that the luminosity distribution of the two afterglow samples (Swift-era and pre-Swift) is very similar, and that a subsample for which we were not able to estimate the extinction, which is fainter than the main sample, can be explained by assuming a moderate amount of line-of-sight host extinction. We derived bolometric isotropic energies for all GRBs in our sample, and found only a tentative correlation between the prompt energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at 1 day after the GRB in the z = 1 system. A comparative study of the optical luminosities of GRB afterglows with echelle spectra (which show a high number of foreground absorbing systems) and those without, reveals no indication that the former are statistically significantly more luminous. Furthermore, we propose the existence of an upper ceiling on afterglow luminosities and study the luminosity distribution at early times, which was not accessible before the advent of the Swift satellite. Most GRBs feature afterglows that are dominated by the forward shock from early times on. Finally, we present the first indications of a class of long GRBs, which form a bridge between the typical highluminosity, high-redshift events and nearby low-luminosity events (which are also associated with spectroscopic supernovae) in terms of energetics and observed redshift distribution, indicating a continuous distribution overall.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The afterglows of Swift-era gamma-ray bursts. I. Comparing pre-Swift and Swift-era long/soft (type II) GRB optical afterglows

AU - Kann, D. A.

AU - Klose, S.

AU - Zhang, B.

AU - Malesani, D.

AU - Nakar, E.

AU - Pozanenko, A.

AU - Wilson, A. C.

AU - Butler, Nathaniel

AU - Jakobsson, P.

AU - Schulze, S.

AU - Andreev, M.

AU - Antonelli, L. A.

AU - Bikmaev, I. F.

AU - Biryukov, V.

AU - Böttcher, M.

AU - Burenin, R. A.

AU - Cerón, J. M Castro

AU - Castro-Tirado, A. J.

AU - Chincarini, G.

AU - Cobb, B. E.

AU - Covino, S.

AU - D'Avanzo, P.

AU - D'Elia, V.

AU - Valle, M. Della

AU - De Ugarte Postigo, A.

AU - Efimov, Yu

AU - Ferrero, P.

AU - Fugazza, D.

AU - Fynbo, J. P U

AU - Gålfalk, M.

AU - Grundahl, F.

AU - Gorosabel, J.

AU - Gupta, S.

AU - Guziy, S.

AU - Hafizov, B.

AU - Hjorth, J.

AU - Holhjem, K.

AU - Ibrahimov, M.

AU - Im, M.

AU - Israel, G. L.

AU - Jelainek, M.

AU - Jensen, B. L.

AU - Karimov, R.

AU - Khamitov, I. M.

AU - Kiziloǧlu, Ü

AU - Klunko, E.

AU - Kubánek, P.

AU - Kutyrev, A. S.

AU - Laursen, P.

AU - Levan, A. J.

AU - Mannucci, F.

AU - Martin, C. M.

AU - Mescheryakov, A.

AU - Mirabal, N.

AU - Norris, J. P.

AU - Ovaldsen, J. E.

AU - Paraficz, D.

AU - Pavlenko, E.

AU - Piranomonte, S.

AU - Rossi, A.

AU - Rumyantsev, V.

AU - Salinas, R.

AU - Sergeev, A.

AU - Sharapov, D.

AU - Sollerman, J.

AU - Stecklum, B.

AU - Stella, L.

AU - Tagliaferri, G.

AU - Tanvir, N. R.

AU - Telting, J.

AU - Testa, V.

AU - Updike, A. C.

AU - Volnova, A.

AU - Watson, D.

AU - Wiersema, K.

AU - Xu, D.

PY - 2010/9/10

Y1 - 2010/9/10

N2 - We have gathered optical photometry data from the literature on a large sample of Swift-era gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows including GRBs up to 2009 September, for a total of 76 GRBs, and present an additional three pre-Swift GRBs not included in an earlier sample. Furthermore, we publish 840 additional new photometry data points on a total of 42 GRB afterglows, including large data sets for GRBs 050319, 050408, 050802, 050820A, 050922C, 060418, 080413A, and 080810. We analyzed the light curves of all GRBs in the sample and derived spectral energy distributions for the sample with the best data quality, allowing us to estimate the host-galaxy extinction. We transformed the afterglow light curves into an extinction-corrected z = 1 system and compared their luminosities with a sample of pre-Swift afterglows. The results of a former study, which showed that GRB afterglows clustered and exhibited a bimodal distribution in luminosity space, are weakened by the larger sample. We found that the luminosity distribution of the two afterglow samples (Swift-era and pre-Swift) is very similar, and that a subsample for which we were not able to estimate the extinction, which is fainter than the main sample, can be explained by assuming a moderate amount of line-of-sight host extinction. We derived bolometric isotropic energies for all GRBs in our sample, and found only a tentative correlation between the prompt energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at 1 day after the GRB in the z = 1 system. A comparative study of the optical luminosities of GRB afterglows with echelle spectra (which show a high number of foreground absorbing systems) and those without, reveals no indication that the former are statistically significantly more luminous. Furthermore, we propose the existence of an upper ceiling on afterglow luminosities and study the luminosity distribution at early times, which was not accessible before the advent of the Swift satellite. Most GRBs feature afterglows that are dominated by the forward shock from early times on. Finally, we present the first indications of a class of long GRBs, which form a bridge between the typical highluminosity, high-redshift events and nearby low-luminosity events (which are also associated with spectroscopic supernovae) in terms of energetics and observed redshift distribution, indicating a continuous distribution overall.

AB - We have gathered optical photometry data from the literature on a large sample of Swift-era gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows including GRBs up to 2009 September, for a total of 76 GRBs, and present an additional three pre-Swift GRBs not included in an earlier sample. Furthermore, we publish 840 additional new photometry data points on a total of 42 GRB afterglows, including large data sets for GRBs 050319, 050408, 050802, 050820A, 050922C, 060418, 080413A, and 080810. We analyzed the light curves of all GRBs in the sample and derived spectral energy distributions for the sample with the best data quality, allowing us to estimate the host-galaxy extinction. We transformed the afterglow light curves into an extinction-corrected z = 1 system and compared their luminosities with a sample of pre-Swift afterglows. The results of a former study, which showed that GRB afterglows clustered and exhibited a bimodal distribution in luminosity space, are weakened by the larger sample. We found that the luminosity distribution of the two afterglow samples (Swift-era and pre-Swift) is very similar, and that a subsample for which we were not able to estimate the extinction, which is fainter than the main sample, can be explained by assuming a moderate amount of line-of-sight host extinction. We derived bolometric isotropic energies for all GRBs in our sample, and found only a tentative correlation between the prompt energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at 1 day after the GRB in the z = 1 system. A comparative study of the optical luminosities of GRB afterglows with echelle spectra (which show a high number of foreground absorbing systems) and those without, reveals no indication that the former are statistically significantly more luminous. Furthermore, we propose the existence of an upper ceiling on afterglow luminosities and study the luminosity distribution at early times, which was not accessible before the advent of the Swift satellite. Most GRBs feature afterglows that are dominated by the forward shock from early times on. Finally, we present the first indications of a class of long GRBs, which form a bridge between the typical highluminosity, high-redshift events and nearby low-luminosity events (which are also associated with spectroscopic supernovae) in terms of energetics and observed redshift distribution, indicating a continuous distribution overall.

KW - Dust, extinction

KW - Gamma-ray burst: general

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U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/720/2/1513

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/720/2/1513

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:77958515957

VL - 720

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EP - 1558

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

ER -