Temporal variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations in Kuwait City, Kuwait with comparisons to Phoenix, Arizona, USA

Hassan A. Nasrallah, Robert Balling, Shaker Mohammed Madi, Lamya Al-Ansari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Hourly atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurements are available from 1996 to present for a suburban site within the growing metropolitan area of Kuwait City. Analyses of this record reveal (a) an annual cycle with highest values in February and lowest values in September reflecting the growth and decay of vegetation in the Northern Hemisphere as well as fluctuations in motor traffic, (b) a weekly cycle with highest values during the weekdays and lowest values during weekends, and (c) a diurnal cycle with highest values after sunset when the local atmosphere becomes more stable following vehicular emission of CO2 throughout the day and lowest values in late afternoon following several hours of relatively unstable conditions. During the daytime, CO2 concentrations are related to wind direction, with westerly winds (coming from the desert) promoting lowest CO2 concentrations. At night, lowest CO2 levels are associated with higher wind speeds and winds from the north. The findings from the Kuwait City area, particularly when contrasted with the situation in Phoenix, further our understanding of the dynamics of CO2 levels in urban environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)301-305
Number of pages5
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2003


  • Carbon dioxide
  • Kuwait City
  • Phoenix, Arizona
  • Urban climate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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