Third graders with low compositional fluency (N = 96) were randomly assigned to 4 time-equated treatments in an instructional experiment (24 lessons over 4 months): spelling (alphabetic principle plus its alternations), composing (reflective discussion plus teacher scaffolding), combined spelling (alphabetic principle) plus composing (teacher scaffolding), and treated control (writing practice, no instruction). All treatments increased compositional fluency. Spelling and combined spelling plus composing were most effective for word-specific spelling (taught words). Teaching alternations improved phonological decoding and transferred to spelling in composing. Composing and combined spelling plus composing were most effective for persuasive essay writing. Only combined spelling plus composing increased both spelling and composing. Results are related to the simple view of writing that integrates diverse theoretical traditions and instructional practices.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology