Synthesis, physicochemical properties, and hydrogen bonding of 4(5)-substituted 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide, a potential universal reader for DNA sequencing by recognition tunneling

Feng Liang, Shengqing Li, Stuart Lindsay, Peiming Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have developed a chemical reagent that recognizes all naturally occurring DNA bases, a so called universal reader, for DNA sequencing by recognition tunneling in nanopores.1 The primary requirements for this type of molecules are the ability to form non-covalent complexes with individual DNA bases and to generate recognizable electronic signatures under an electrical bias. 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide was designed as such a recognition moiety to interact with the DNA bases through hydrogen bonding. In the present study, we first furnished a synthetic route to 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide containing a short ω-functionalized alkyl chain at its 4(5) position for its attachment to metal and carbon electrodes. The acid dissociation constants of the imidazole-2-carboxamide were then determined by UV spectroscopy. The data show that the 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide exists in a neutral form between pH 6-10. Density functional theory (DFT) and NMR studies indicate that the imidazole ring exists in prototropic tautomers. We propose an intramolecular mechanism for tautomerization of 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide. In addition, the imidazole-2-carboxamide can self-associate to form hydrogen bonded dimers. NMR titration found that naturally occurring nucleosides interacted with 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide through hydrogen bonding in a tendency of dG>dC≤laquo;dT>dA. These studies are indispensable to assisting us in understanding the molecular recognition that takes place in the nanopore where routinely used analytical tools such as NMR and FTIR cannot be conveniently applied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5998-6007
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Volume18
Issue number19
DOIs
StatePublished - May 7 2012

Fingerprint

Hydrogen bonds
DNA
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Molecular recognition
Nanopores
Ultraviolet spectroscopy
Titration
Dimers
Density functional theory
Hydrogen
Electrodes
Molecules
Carbon
Acids
imidazole
Metals
Nucleosides

Keywords

  • DNA
  • hydrogen bonds
  • recognition tunneling
  • self-association
  • universal reader

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

@article{692c435dff3746b6b90d146e0fb48429,
title = "Synthesis, physicochemical properties, and hydrogen bonding of 4(5)-substituted 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide, a potential universal reader for DNA sequencing by recognition tunneling",
abstract = "We have developed a chemical reagent that recognizes all naturally occurring DNA bases, a so called universal reader, for DNA sequencing by recognition tunneling in nanopores.1 The primary requirements for this type of molecules are the ability to form non-covalent complexes with individual DNA bases and to generate recognizable electronic signatures under an electrical bias. 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide was designed as such a recognition moiety to interact with the DNA bases through hydrogen bonding. In the present study, we first furnished a synthetic route to 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide containing a short ω-functionalized alkyl chain at its 4(5) position for its attachment to metal and carbon electrodes. The acid dissociation constants of the imidazole-2-carboxamide were then determined by UV spectroscopy. The data show that the 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide exists in a neutral form between pH 6-10. Density functional theory (DFT) and NMR studies indicate that the imidazole ring exists in prototropic tautomers. We propose an intramolecular mechanism for tautomerization of 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide. In addition, the imidazole-2-carboxamide can self-associate to form hydrogen bonded dimers. NMR titration found that naturally occurring nucleosides interacted with 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide through hydrogen bonding in a tendency of dG>dC≤laquo;dT>dA. These studies are indispensable to assisting us in understanding the molecular recognition that takes place in the nanopore where routinely used analytical tools such as NMR and FTIR cannot be conveniently applied.",
keywords = "DNA, hydrogen bonds, recognition tunneling, self-association, universal reader",
author = "Feng Liang and Shengqing Li and Stuart Lindsay and Peiming Zhang",
year = "2012",
month = "5",
day = "7",
doi = "10.1002/chem.201103306",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "18",
pages = "5998--6007",
journal = "Chemistry - A European Journal",
issn = "0947-6539",
publisher = "Wiley-VCH Verlag",
number = "19",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Synthesis, physicochemical properties, and hydrogen bonding of 4(5)-substituted 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide, a potential universal reader for DNA sequencing by recognition tunneling

AU - Liang, Feng

AU - Li, Shengqing

AU - Lindsay, Stuart

AU - Zhang, Peiming

PY - 2012/5/7

Y1 - 2012/5/7

N2 - We have developed a chemical reagent that recognizes all naturally occurring DNA bases, a so called universal reader, for DNA sequencing by recognition tunneling in nanopores.1 The primary requirements for this type of molecules are the ability to form non-covalent complexes with individual DNA bases and to generate recognizable electronic signatures under an electrical bias. 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide was designed as such a recognition moiety to interact with the DNA bases through hydrogen bonding. In the present study, we first furnished a synthetic route to 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide containing a short ω-functionalized alkyl chain at its 4(5) position for its attachment to metal and carbon electrodes. The acid dissociation constants of the imidazole-2-carboxamide were then determined by UV spectroscopy. The data show that the 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide exists in a neutral form between pH 6-10. Density functional theory (DFT) and NMR studies indicate that the imidazole ring exists in prototropic tautomers. We propose an intramolecular mechanism for tautomerization of 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide. In addition, the imidazole-2-carboxamide can self-associate to form hydrogen bonded dimers. NMR titration found that naturally occurring nucleosides interacted with 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide through hydrogen bonding in a tendency of dG>dC≤laquo;dT>dA. These studies are indispensable to assisting us in understanding the molecular recognition that takes place in the nanopore where routinely used analytical tools such as NMR and FTIR cannot be conveniently applied.

AB - We have developed a chemical reagent that recognizes all naturally occurring DNA bases, a so called universal reader, for DNA sequencing by recognition tunneling in nanopores.1 The primary requirements for this type of molecules are the ability to form non-covalent complexes with individual DNA bases and to generate recognizable electronic signatures under an electrical bias. 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide was designed as such a recognition moiety to interact with the DNA bases through hydrogen bonding. In the present study, we first furnished a synthetic route to 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide containing a short ω-functionalized alkyl chain at its 4(5) position for its attachment to metal and carbon electrodes. The acid dissociation constants of the imidazole-2-carboxamide were then determined by UV spectroscopy. The data show that the 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide exists in a neutral form between pH 6-10. Density functional theory (DFT) and NMR studies indicate that the imidazole ring exists in prototropic tautomers. We propose an intramolecular mechanism for tautomerization of 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide. In addition, the imidazole-2-carboxamide can self-associate to form hydrogen bonded dimers. NMR titration found that naturally occurring nucleosides interacted with 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide through hydrogen bonding in a tendency of dG>dC≤laquo;dT>dA. These studies are indispensable to assisting us in understanding the molecular recognition that takes place in the nanopore where routinely used analytical tools such as NMR and FTIR cannot be conveniently applied.

KW - DNA

KW - hydrogen bonds

KW - recognition tunneling

KW - self-association

KW - universal reader

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84860767900&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84860767900&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/chem.201103306

DO - 10.1002/chem.201103306

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 5998

EP - 6007

JO - Chemistry - A European Journal

JF - Chemistry - A European Journal

SN - 0947-6539

IS - 19

ER -