Synthesis, physicochemical properties, and hydrogen bonding of 4(5)-substituted 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide, a potential universal reader for DNA sequencing by recognition tunneling

Feng Liang, Shengqing Li, Stuart Lindsay, Peiming Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

We have developed a chemical reagent that recognizes all naturally occurring DNA bases, a so called universal reader, for DNA sequencing by recognition tunneling in nanopores.1 The primary requirements for this type of molecules are the ability to form non-covalent complexes with individual DNA bases and to generate recognizable electronic signatures under an electrical bias. 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide was designed as such a recognition moiety to interact with the DNA bases through hydrogen bonding. In the present study, we first furnished a synthetic route to 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide containing a short ω-functionalized alkyl chain at its 4(5) position for its attachment to metal and carbon electrodes. The acid dissociation constants of the imidazole-2-carboxamide were then determined by UV spectroscopy. The data show that the 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide exists in a neutral form between pH 6-10. Density functional theory (DFT) and NMR studies indicate that the imidazole ring exists in prototropic tautomers. We propose an intramolecular mechanism for tautomerization of 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide. In addition, the imidazole-2-carboxamide can self-associate to form hydrogen bonded dimers. NMR titration found that naturally occurring nucleosides interacted with 1-H-imidazole-2-carboxamide through hydrogen bonding in a tendency of dG>dC≤laquo;dT>dA. These studies are indispensable to assisting us in understanding the molecular recognition that takes place in the nanopore where routinely used analytical tools such as NMR and FTIR cannot be conveniently applied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5998-6007
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Volume18
Issue number19
DOIs
StatePublished - May 7 2012

Keywords

  • DNA
  • hydrogen bonds
  • recognition tunneling
  • self-association
  • universal reader

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry

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