Surviving slavery: Sexuality and female agency in late nineteenth and early twentieth-century Morocco

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

The tragic hero of North African slavery is female. In Morocco in the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, female slaves, mainly black women originally from West Africa, survived and sometimes thrived by forging emotional bonds with their masters. The striving for survival and the tragic drama of the female slaves' lives entailed emotional and sexual bonds via concubinage. For free Moroccan men concubinage was legalized and was secured by means of the connection to sexual desire. Concubines, that is, enslaved women, used, initially at least, this desire to secure a better position in a servile status within a society where gender was hierarchical: patrilineal and patriarchal. If it was legally and socially established for a male to be entitled to female slave sexuality, it was, as well, legally and socially conventional for the progeny of female slaves to inherit the father's legal status. I use the analysis of the concubinage system as a process to investigate the interplay of agency, emotions, sexuality, identity, race, and gender in Morocco.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-88
Number of pages16
JournalHistorical Reflections
Volume34
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008

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Keywords

  • Concubinage
  • Female slavery
  • Gender roles
  • Islamic law and slavery
  • Maghreb
  • Morocco
  • Women slaves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • History

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