Surveillance or Safekeeping? How School Security Officer and Camera Presence Influence Students’ Perceptions of Safety, Equity, and Support

Sarah Lindstrom Johnson, Jessika Bottiani, Tracy E. Waasdorp, Catherine P. Bradshaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Target hardening, or increasing the use of security measures, is a frequently used response to perceived safety concerns in schools. Studies are mixed as to their effectiveness on students’ perceptions of safety and little is known about their influence on other aspects of school climate, particularly for minority students. This study will examine the association between observed security measures in secondary schools and students’ perceptions of safety, equity, and support. Methods: School climate surveys were completed by 54,350 students from 98 middle and high schools across the state of Maryland beginning in Spring 2014. Concurrent observations of the school physical environment, including security measures (i.e., officers and cameras), were conducted by trained outside assessors. Multilevel regression analyses examined the association between school security officers and cameras and students’ perceptions of safety, equity, and support, while controlling for school and neighborhood characteristics. Cross-level interactions explored differential effects of security measures for Black students. Results: Greater use of security cameras inside the school was related to lower perceptions of safety, equity, and support. A moderate level of security camera use outside the school was related to higher student perceptions of support. Security officer presence was associated with higher perceptions of safety. For black students, cameras were associated with elevated perceptions of safety and support relative to white students. Conclusions: Our findings may suggest that outside cameras and security may be perceived by students as safekeeping, whereas inside cameras may evoke feelings of being viewed as potential perpetrators who need surveillance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Adolescent Health
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Students
Safety
Security Measures
Climate
Multilevel Analysis
Emotions
Regression Analysis

Keywords

  • School safety
  • School security
  • School surveillance
  • Violence prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Surveillance or Safekeeping? How School Security Officer and Camera Presence Influence Students’ Perceptions of Safety, Equity, and Support. / Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Bottiani, Jessika; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

In: Journal of Adolescent Health, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c6a6ff749c4b4f0fb4b3d3b241c1d5de,
title = "Surveillance or Safekeeping? How School Security Officer and Camera Presence Influence Students’ Perceptions of Safety, Equity, and Support",
abstract = "Purpose: Target hardening, or increasing the use of security measures, is a frequently used response to perceived safety concerns in schools. Studies are mixed as to their effectiveness on students’ perceptions of safety and little is known about their influence on other aspects of school climate, particularly for minority students. This study will examine the association between observed security measures in secondary schools and students’ perceptions of safety, equity, and support. Methods: School climate surveys were completed by 54,350 students from 98 middle and high schools across the state of Maryland beginning in Spring 2014. Concurrent observations of the school physical environment, including security measures (i.e., officers and cameras), were conducted by trained outside assessors. Multilevel regression analyses examined the association between school security officers and cameras and students’ perceptions of safety, equity, and support, while controlling for school and neighborhood characteristics. Cross-level interactions explored differential effects of security measures for Black students. Results: Greater use of security cameras inside the school was related to lower perceptions of safety, equity, and support. A moderate level of security camera use outside the school was related to higher student perceptions of support. Security officer presence was associated with higher perceptions of safety. For black students, cameras were associated with elevated perceptions of safety and support relative to white students. Conclusions: Our findings may suggest that outside cameras and security may be perceived by students as safekeeping, whereas inside cameras may evoke feelings of being viewed as potential perpetrators who need surveillance.",
keywords = "School safety, School security, School surveillance, Violence prevention",
author = "{Lindstrom Johnson}, Sarah and Jessika Bottiani and Waasdorp, {Tracy E.} and Bradshaw, {Catherine P.}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.06.008",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Adolescent Health",
issn = "1054-139X",
publisher = "Elsevier USA",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Surveillance or Safekeeping? How School Security Officer and Camera Presence Influence Students’ Perceptions of Safety, Equity, and Support

AU - Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah

AU - Bottiani, Jessika

AU - Waasdorp, Tracy E.

AU - Bradshaw, Catherine P.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Purpose: Target hardening, or increasing the use of security measures, is a frequently used response to perceived safety concerns in schools. Studies are mixed as to their effectiveness on students’ perceptions of safety and little is known about their influence on other aspects of school climate, particularly for minority students. This study will examine the association between observed security measures in secondary schools and students’ perceptions of safety, equity, and support. Methods: School climate surveys were completed by 54,350 students from 98 middle and high schools across the state of Maryland beginning in Spring 2014. Concurrent observations of the school physical environment, including security measures (i.e., officers and cameras), were conducted by trained outside assessors. Multilevel regression analyses examined the association between school security officers and cameras and students’ perceptions of safety, equity, and support, while controlling for school and neighborhood characteristics. Cross-level interactions explored differential effects of security measures for Black students. Results: Greater use of security cameras inside the school was related to lower perceptions of safety, equity, and support. A moderate level of security camera use outside the school was related to higher student perceptions of support. Security officer presence was associated with higher perceptions of safety. For black students, cameras were associated with elevated perceptions of safety and support relative to white students. Conclusions: Our findings may suggest that outside cameras and security may be perceived by students as safekeeping, whereas inside cameras may evoke feelings of being viewed as potential perpetrators who need surveillance.

AB - Purpose: Target hardening, or increasing the use of security measures, is a frequently used response to perceived safety concerns in schools. Studies are mixed as to their effectiveness on students’ perceptions of safety and little is known about their influence on other aspects of school climate, particularly for minority students. This study will examine the association between observed security measures in secondary schools and students’ perceptions of safety, equity, and support. Methods: School climate surveys were completed by 54,350 students from 98 middle and high schools across the state of Maryland beginning in Spring 2014. Concurrent observations of the school physical environment, including security measures (i.e., officers and cameras), were conducted by trained outside assessors. Multilevel regression analyses examined the association between school security officers and cameras and students’ perceptions of safety, equity, and support, while controlling for school and neighborhood characteristics. Cross-level interactions explored differential effects of security measures for Black students. Results: Greater use of security cameras inside the school was related to lower perceptions of safety, equity, and support. A moderate level of security camera use outside the school was related to higher student perceptions of support. Security officer presence was associated with higher perceptions of safety. For black students, cameras were associated with elevated perceptions of safety and support relative to white students. Conclusions: Our findings may suggest that outside cameras and security may be perceived by students as safekeeping, whereas inside cameras may evoke feelings of being viewed as potential perpetrators who need surveillance.

KW - School safety

KW - School security

KW - School surveillance

KW - Violence prevention

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85052932926&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85052932926&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.06.008

DO - 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.06.008

M3 - Article

JO - Journal of Adolescent Health

JF - Journal of Adolescent Health

SN - 1054-139X

ER -