Surface structure analysis of Eu Zintl template on Ge(001)

Patrick Ponath, Ali K. Hamze, Agham B. Posadas, Sirong Lu, Hsin Wei Wu, David Smith, Alexander A. Demkov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The surface reconstructions and surface core level shifts of 0.25 monolayer (ML), 0.5 ML and 1.0 ML of europium (Eu) on the Ge(001) surface are investigated experimentally and theoretically, using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT). Starting with a clean Ge(001) surface we find that the surface reconstruction changes from the initial (2 × 1) to a (3 × 2), (8 × 1) and a final (3 × 1) pattern with increasing Eu coverage of 0.25 ML, 0.5 ML and 1.0 ML, respectively. XPS scans demonstrate that the Ge 3d core level shifts to higher binding energies with increasing Eu coverage. We find that Eu is in the 2+ oxidation state, transferring its charge to the Ge surface, resulting in the disappearance of the asymmetry of the dimer tilt at a coverage of 0.5 ML of Eu. From density functional calculations we find that the Ge dimers flatten out at 0.5 ML Eu coverage and partially break apart at 1.0 ML Eu.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-102
Number of pages9
JournalSurface Science
Volume674
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018

Fingerprint

Europium
europium
Surface structure
Monolayers
templates
Core levels
x ray spectroscopy
Surface reconstruction
Photoelectron spectroscopy
dimers
Dimers
photoelectron spectroscopy
Density functional theory
shift
X rays
Reflection high energy electron diffraction
high energy electrons
molecular beam epitaxy
Binding energy
electron diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Ponath, P., Hamze, A. K., Posadas, A. B., Lu, S., Wu, H. W., Smith, D., & Demkov, A. A. (2018). Surface structure analysis of Eu Zintl template on Ge(001). Surface Science, 674, 94-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2018.04.003

Surface structure analysis of Eu Zintl template on Ge(001). / Ponath, Patrick; Hamze, Ali K.; Posadas, Agham B.; Lu, Sirong; Wu, Hsin Wei; Smith, David; Demkov, Alexander A.

In: Surface Science, Vol. 674, 01.08.2018, p. 94-102.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ponath, P, Hamze, AK, Posadas, AB, Lu, S, Wu, HW, Smith, D & Demkov, AA 2018, 'Surface structure analysis of Eu Zintl template on Ge(001)', Surface Science, vol. 674, pp. 94-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2018.04.003
Ponath, Patrick ; Hamze, Ali K. ; Posadas, Agham B. ; Lu, Sirong ; Wu, Hsin Wei ; Smith, David ; Demkov, Alexander A. / Surface structure analysis of Eu Zintl template on Ge(001). In: Surface Science. 2018 ; Vol. 674. pp. 94-102.
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AU - Smith, David

AU - Demkov, Alexander A.

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AB - The surface reconstructions and surface core level shifts of 0.25 monolayer (ML), 0.5 ML and 1.0 ML of europium (Eu) on the Ge(001) surface are investigated experimentally and theoretically, using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT). Starting with a clean Ge(001) surface we find that the surface reconstruction changes from the initial (2 × 1) to a (3 × 2), (8 × 1) and a final (3 × 1) pattern with increasing Eu coverage of 0.25 ML, 0.5 ML and 1.0 ML, respectively. XPS scans demonstrate that the Ge 3d core level shifts to higher binding energies with increasing Eu coverage. We find that Eu is in the 2+ oxidation state, transferring its charge to the Ge surface, resulting in the disappearance of the asymmetry of the dimer tilt at a coverage of 0.5 ML of Eu. From density functional calculations we find that the Ge dimers flatten out at 0.5 ML Eu coverage and partially break apart at 1.0 ML Eu.

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