Surface cleaning, electronic states and electron affinity of diamond (100), (111) and (110) surfaces

P. K. Baumann, R. J. Nemanich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Scopus citations


The effects of cleaning natural type lib diamond (100), (111) and (110) samples by annealing and hydrogen - or deuterium plasma exposure were investigated by means of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Different wet chemical cleaning processes (a conventional chromic acid clean and an electrochemical etch) and a H plasma exposure have been employed to clean natural type lib semiconducting diamond C(100) wafers. The effects of these processes on the diamond surface have been assessed and compared. As evidenced by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), an oxygen free surface could be obtained following vacuum annealing to 900°C for the electrochemical process compared to 1050°C for the chromic acid etch. In addition, the technique of atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of oriented pits on the surface of samples that were electrochemically etched for long times at high currents. After a H plasma exposure the negative electron affinity (NEA) peak in the UPS spectra doubled in intensity. An anneal to 1100°C resulted in the removal of the sharp NEA feature. A second H plasma treatment resulted in the reappearance of the NEA peak similar to that after the first H plasma exposure. A (2×1) reconstructed low energy electron diffraction pattern was observed subsequent to the anneals as well as the H plasma treatments. The fact that a NEA can be induced or removed repeatedly by means of a H plasma exposure or annealing at 1100°C, respectively, provides evidence to correlate the appearance of a NEA with the presence of a monohydride terminated surface. Corresponding effects were found for (111) and (110) surfaces. A NEA could be induced by a H plasma and removed by annealing at 900 or 800°C for diamond (111) or (110) surfaces, respectively. Following a deuterium plasma exposure the diamond surfaces exhibited a NEA like the ones treated by a hydrogen plasma. Higher annealing temperatures were necessary to remove the NEA for deuterium due to the isotope effect. Values of 79 and 81 V μm-1 were measured for the field emission threshold of the oxygen terminated C(100) and C(110) surfaces, respectively. A value of 25 V μm-1 was determined for the hydrogen terminated C(110) surface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)320-335
Number of pages16
JournalSurface Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 1 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • Diamond
  • Electron emission
  • Field emission
  • Photoemission
  • Semiconductor surfaces
  • Surface electronic phenomena
  • Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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