Success and failure with tier-2 SRSD for timed-writing tests among second-through fifth-grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties: Implications for evidence-based practice

Karin Sandmel, Kristen D. Wilson, Karen Harris, Kathleen Lynne Lane, Stephen Graham, Wendy Oakes, Sharlene A. Kiuhara, Trish D. Steinbrecher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


Relatively limited attention has been paid to the academic needs of students with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Effective interventions are needed to support these students academically, behaviorally, and socially. The purpose of the concurrent studies reported here was to investigate the effectiveness of academic support in writing for fourth- and fifth-grade students (six boys, two girls) and second- and third-grade students (seven boys, one girl) with writing and behavioral difficulties. The Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) approach was implemented as a tier-2 intervention within a comprehensive, integrated three-tiered model of prevention including academic-, behavioral-, and social-skills components. Students learned an on-demand writing strategy for their state writing-competency test. Dependent measures included number of story writing elements, total number of words written, and writing quality. Fourth- and fifth-grade students who completed the intervention improved in total number of story elements. There were mixed results for the total number of words written and writing quality. Second- and third-grade students did not improve their total number of story elements, total words written, or writing quality. Students in both studies scored the intervention favorably, while there were mixed reactions from teachers. Findings, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed. Implications for the construct of evidence-based practice (EBP) are also explored, including concerns regarding frequent assessment of writing throughout intervention regardless of stage of instruction in the SRSD model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-293
Number of pages43
JournalAdvances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
StatePublished - Dec 1 2011


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Rehabilitation

Cite this