Substrate Temperature to Control Moduli and Water Uptake in Thin Films of Vapor Deposited N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPD)

Jessica M. Torres, Nathan Bakken, Jian Li, Bryan D. Vogt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ultrastable glasses are generated by vapor deposition on substrates heated near the glass transition temperature (Tg), but it is unclear if the remarkable properties of such glasses are present in ultrathin (g = 0.94. This maximum in modulus is the same modulus obtained for very thin (g = 0.80). However, the modulus of films deposited at this lower temperature abruptly decreases to approximately 1.5 GPa for thicker films; the modulus from deposition at T/Tg = 0.94 is thickness independent. In addition to the thin film modulus, the substrate temperature significantly impacts the water uptake in NPD films. From QCM, the volume fraction of water at equilibrium with nearly saturated water vapor decreases from nearly 4% to less than 1% as the substrate temperature increases from T/Tg = 0.82 to T/Tg = 0.93. The substrate temperature provides a simple route to control mechanical properties and water uptake into vapor-deposited NPD, and these concepts are likely extendable to other organic electronic materials; the increased moduli and decreased water uptake could enable improved performance and lifetime of small molecule glasses for a variety of organic electronic applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11928-11934
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
Volume119
Issue number35
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 31 2015

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Diamines
diamines
Vapors
vapors
Thin films
Water
Substrates
thin films
Glass
water
glass
Temperature
Vapor deposition
temperature
Steam
electronics
Thick films
glass transition temperature
Water vapor
thick films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Substrate Temperature to Control Moduli and Water Uptake in Thin Films of Vapor Deposited N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPD). / Torres, Jessica M.; Bakken, Nathan; Li, Jian; Vogt, Bryan D.

In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 119, No. 35, 31.07.2015, p. 11928-11934.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Ultrastable glasses are generated by vapor deposition on substrates heated near the glass transition temperature (Tg), but it is unclear if the remarkable properties of such glasses are present in ultrathin (g = 0.94. This maximum in modulus is the same modulus obtained for very thin (g = 0.80). However, the modulus of films deposited at this lower temperature abruptly decreases to approximately 1.5 GPa for thicker films; the modulus from deposition at T/Tg = 0.94 is thickness independent. In addition to the thin film modulus, the substrate temperature significantly impacts the water uptake in NPD films. From QCM, the volume fraction of water at equilibrium with nearly saturated water vapor decreases from nearly 4{\%} to less than 1{\%} as the substrate temperature increases from T/Tg = 0.82 to T/Tg = 0.93. The substrate temperature provides a simple route to control mechanical properties and water uptake into vapor-deposited NPD, and these concepts are likely extendable to other organic electronic materials; the increased moduli and decreased water uptake could enable improved performance and lifetime of small molecule glasses for a variety of organic electronic applications.",
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