Student Approaches and Performance in Element Sequencing Tasks Using 2D and Augmented Reality Formats

Kieren H. McCord, Steven K. Ayer, Logan A. Perry, Karan R. Patil, Jeremi S. London, Vanessa Khoury, Wei Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In civil and construction engineering education research, a focus has been on using 3D models to support students’ design comprehension. Despite this trend, the predominant mode of design communication in the industry relies on 2D plans and specifications, which typically super-sede other modes of communication. Rather than focusing on the presentation of less common 3D content as an input to support students’ understanding of a design, this paper explores more common 2D inputs, but compares different visualization formats of student output in two educational interventions. In the first intervention, students document a construction sequence for wood-framed elements in a 2D worksheet format. In the second, students work with the same wood-framed design, but document their sequence through an augmented reality (AR) format where their physical interactions move full‐scale virtual elements as if they were physically constructing the wood frame. Student approaches and performance were analyzed using qualitative attribute coding of video, audio, and written documentation of the student experience. Overall, results showed that the 2D worksheet format was simple to implement and was not mentally demanding to complete, but often corresponded with a lack of critical checks and a lack of mistake recognition from the students. The AR approach challenged students more in terms of cognitive load and completion rates but showed the potential for facilitating mistake recognition and self‐remediation through vis-ualization. These results suggest that when students are tasked with conceptualizing construction sequences from 2D documentation, the cognitive challenges associated with documenting a sequence in AR may support their recognition of their own mistakes in ways that may not be effec-tively supported through 2D documentation as an output for documenting and planning a construction sequence. The results presented in this paper provide insights on student tendencies, be-haviors, and perceptions related to defining construction sequences from 2D documentation in or-der for educators to make informed decisions regarding the use of similar learning activities to pre-pare their students for understanding the 2D design documents used in industry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number247
JournalEducation Sciences
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • augmented reality
  • construction management
  • education
  • hands‐on
  • sequencing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Computer Science(all)
  • Education
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Public Administration
  • Computer Science Applications


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