Structure and function in rhodopsin: Effects of disulfide cross-links in the cytoplasmic face of rhodopsin on transducin activation and phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase

Kewen Cai, Judith Klein-Seetharaman, John Hwa, Wayne L. Hubbell, H. Gobind Khorana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations

Abstract

Six rhodopsin mutants containing disulfide cross-links between different cytoplasmic regions were prepared: disulfide bond 1, between Cys65 (interhelical loop I-II) and Cys316 (end of helix VII); disulfide bond 2, between Cys246 (end of helix VI) and Cys312 (end of helix VII); disulfide bond 3, between Cys139 (end of helix III) and Cys248 (end of helix VI); disulfide bond 4, between cys139 (end of helix III) and Cys250 (end of helix VI); disulfide bond 5, between Cys135 (end of helix III) and Cys250 (end of helix VI); and disulfide bond 6, between Cys245 (end of helix VI) and Cys338 (C-terminus). The effects of local restrictions caused by the cross-links on transducin (G(T)) activation and phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase (RK) following illumination were studied. Disulfide bond 1 showed little effect on either G(T) activation or phosphorylation by RK, suggesting that the relative motion between interhelical loop I-II and helix VII is not crucial for recognition by G(T) or by RK. In contrast, disulfide bonds 2-5 abolished both G(T) activation and phosphorylation by RK. Disulfide bond 6 resulted in enhanced GT activation but abolished phosphorylation by RK, suggesting the structure recognized by G(T) was stabilized in this mutant by cross-linking of the C-terminus to the cytoplasmic end of helix VI. Thus, the consequences of the disulfide cross-links depended on the location of the restriction. In particular, relative motions of helix VI, with respect to both helices III and VII upon light activation, are required for recognition of rhodopsin by both G(T) and RK. Further, the conformational changes in the cytoplasmic face that are necessary for protein-protein interactions need not be cooperative, and may be segmental.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12893-12898
Number of pages6
JournalBiochemistry
Volume38
Issue number39
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 28 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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