The use of a coarse limestone powder (median particle size of approximately 70 μm, five times larger than cement particles) as a cement replacement material results in a dilution effect. The magnitude of strength and transport property reduction is found to be greater than the magnitude of the cement replacement level. In this paper, methodologies to proportion concrete containing 10% to 15% of coarse limestone powder, in which the dilution effect is compensated through a combination of reduction in water-to-powder ratio and addition of 5% of silica fume, are discussed. Limestone-silica fume blended concretes at a reduced water-to-powder ratio (0.37 or 0.34, depending on limestone replacement level) show similar or higher 56-day compressive strengths than does the benchmark plain concrete with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.40. The rapid chloride permeability and non-steady state migration values of the modified concretes are evaluated along with their pore structure parameter extracted from electrical impedance data. The impact of water-to-powder reduction and silica fume incorporation is quantified through this pore structure parameter.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering