Steady-State Model Derived Multi-variable Loss Optimization for Triple Active <italic>C</italic>3<italic>L</italic>3 Resonant Converter

Ashwin Chandwani, Ayan Mallik, Akin Akturk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Conventional pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled multi-port converters (MPCs) portray a narrow soft-switching range and higher RMS currents at light-load and non-unity gain conditions, leading to degraded end-to-end efficiency. Focusing on efficiency targeted limitations of conventional MPCs employed in electric vehicle (EV) charging applications, a comprehensive loss optimization study of a resonant Triple Active <italic>C</italic>3<italic>L</italic>3 (<italic>TAC</italic>3<italic>L</italic>3) converter is presented in this paper. The multi-variable loss objective function is developed with constraints imposed to ensure zero voltage switching (ZVS) and synchronous rectification (SR) based soft-switching for all the corner conditions, by investigating the scope of optimal hybrid phase-duty-frequency modulation techniques. Based on the performance metrics obtained by employing hybrid modulation schemes, an algorithm is introduced to enable selection of least algorithmic complexity focused on digital implementation constraints that yields a steady-state operating zone matrix for different loading and port gain conditions. To benchmark the converter performance and the optimal modulation scheme selection criteria, an all-GaN based 2kW prototype is developed for a resonant frequency of 500kHz. Experimental validations for various loading conditions are presented for a wide-gain bidirectional operation (400V/500-600V/24-28V), that yield an efficiency improvement of ~1.2% as compared to conventional solutions, while portraying a peak converter efficiency of 97.42%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalIEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Bridge circuits
  • EV charging
  • Load flow
  • Modulation
  • Optimization
  • Resonant converters
  • resonant converters
  • switching losses
  • synchronous rectification
  • Topology
  • Zero voltage switching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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