In situ thermal-based soil and aquifer remediation technologies (e.g., electrical resistance heating [ERH], conductive heating, and steam-based heating) have undergone rapid development and application in recent years. These thermal technologies offer the promise of more rapid and thorough treatment of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones; however, their field-scale application has not been well documented in the technical literature. A state-of-the-practice review of the application of these technologies was conducted in this study. Available documents from 182 applications were reviewed, which included 87 ERH, 46 steam-based heating, 26 conductive heating, and 23 other heating technology applications conducted between 1988 and 2007. Approximately 90% of the 182 applications were implemented after 1995 and about half since 2000. More specifically, this review identified the geologic settings in which these technologies were applied, chemicals treated, design parameters, operating conditions, and performance metrics. The results of this study are summarized in a table linking this information to five generalized geologic scenarios. Practitioners considering thermal technologies for their site can identify the geologic scenario that most closely resembles their site and then can quickly see which technologies have been applied in that setting, the designs employed, operating conditions, and the performance achieved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Water Science and Technology