Spirituality, Employment Hope, and Grit: Modeling the Relationship among Underemployed Urban African Americans

David Hodge, Philip Young P. Hong, Sangmi Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Interest in the construct of grit has increased across disciplines due to its ability to predict success in a wide variety of settings. Grit is a particularly important construct among disadvantaged populations, who typically must overcome a disproportionate number of obstacles to reach their goals. This study develops and tests a model of grit among one such population: underemployed urban African Americans. The study sample consists of 1,045 consecutive attendees at a two-week job readiness training program in a large urban area. The results of the structural equation modeling indicate that spirituality has a direct, positive effect on grit and that this relationship is partially mediated by employment hope. The results suggest that spirituality and employment hope are protective factors that may be leveraged in practice settings to potentially enhance grit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-52
Number of pages10
JournalSocial work research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019



  • African Americans
  • employment hope
  • grit
  • spirituality
  • unemployment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science

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