Spendency

Students' Propensity to Use System Currency

Erica L. Snow, Laura K. Allen, G. Tanner Jackson, Danielle McNamara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Using students' process data from the game-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) iSTART-ME, the current study examines students' propensity to use system currency to unlock game-based features, (i.e., referred to here as spendency). This study examines how spendency relates to students' interaction preferences, in-system performance, and learning outcomes (i.e., self-explanation quality, comprehension). A group of 40 high school students interacted with iSTART-ME as part of an 11-session experiment (pretest, eight training sessions, posttest, and a delayed retention test). Students' spendency was negatively related to the frequency of their use of personalizable features. In addition, students' spendency was negatively related to their in-system achievements, daily learning outcomes, and performance on a transfer comprehension task, even after factoring out prior ability. The findings from this study indicate that increases in students' spendency are systematically related to their selection choices and may have a negative effect on in-system performance, immediate learning outcomes, and skill transfer outcomes. The results have particular relevance to game-based systems that incorporate currency to unlock features within games as well as to the differential tradeoffs of game features on motivation and learning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)407-427
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
Volume25
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

Fingerprint

currency
Students
student
comprehension
learning
factoring
learning performance
Intelligent systems
performance
experiment
ability
interaction
school
Group
Experiments

Keywords

  • Game-based features
  • Gamification
  • Intelligent tutoring systems
  • Seductive distractors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Education

Cite this

Spendency : Students' Propensity to Use System Currency. / Snow, Erica L.; Allen, Laura K.; Jackson, G. Tanner; McNamara, Danielle.

In: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Vol. 25, No. 3, 01.09.2015, p. 407-427.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Snow, Erica L. ; Allen, Laura K. ; Jackson, G. Tanner ; McNamara, Danielle. / Spendency : Students' Propensity to Use System Currency. In: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. 2015 ; Vol. 25, No. 3. pp. 407-427.
@article{3cdf93eb31d04ca48ce6f15a092f85fe,
title = "Spendency: Students' Propensity to Use System Currency",
abstract = "Using students' process data from the game-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) iSTART-ME, the current study examines students' propensity to use system currency to unlock game-based features, (i.e., referred to here as spendency). This study examines how spendency relates to students' interaction preferences, in-system performance, and learning outcomes (i.e., self-explanation quality, comprehension). A group of 40 high school students interacted with iSTART-ME as part of an 11-session experiment (pretest, eight training sessions, posttest, and a delayed retention test). Students' spendency was negatively related to the frequency of their use of personalizable features. In addition, students' spendency was negatively related to their in-system achievements, daily learning outcomes, and performance on a transfer comprehension task, even after factoring out prior ability. The findings from this study indicate that increases in students' spendency are systematically related to their selection choices and may have a negative effect on in-system performance, immediate learning outcomes, and skill transfer outcomes. The results have particular relevance to game-based systems that incorporate currency to unlock features within games as well as to the differential tradeoffs of game features on motivation and learning.",
keywords = "Game-based features, Gamification, Intelligent tutoring systems, Seductive distractors",
author = "Snow, {Erica L.} and Allen, {Laura K.} and Jackson, {G. Tanner} and Danielle McNamara",
year = "2015",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s40593-015-0044-1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "25",
pages = "407--427",
journal = "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education",
issn = "1560-4292",
publisher = "IOS Press",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Spendency

T2 - Students' Propensity to Use System Currency

AU - Snow, Erica L.

AU - Allen, Laura K.

AU - Jackson, G. Tanner

AU - McNamara, Danielle

PY - 2015/9/1

Y1 - 2015/9/1

N2 - Using students' process data from the game-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) iSTART-ME, the current study examines students' propensity to use system currency to unlock game-based features, (i.e., referred to here as spendency). This study examines how spendency relates to students' interaction preferences, in-system performance, and learning outcomes (i.e., self-explanation quality, comprehension). A group of 40 high school students interacted with iSTART-ME as part of an 11-session experiment (pretest, eight training sessions, posttest, and a delayed retention test). Students' spendency was negatively related to the frequency of their use of personalizable features. In addition, students' spendency was negatively related to their in-system achievements, daily learning outcomes, and performance on a transfer comprehension task, even after factoring out prior ability. The findings from this study indicate that increases in students' spendency are systematically related to their selection choices and may have a negative effect on in-system performance, immediate learning outcomes, and skill transfer outcomes. The results have particular relevance to game-based systems that incorporate currency to unlock features within games as well as to the differential tradeoffs of game features on motivation and learning.

AB - Using students' process data from the game-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) iSTART-ME, the current study examines students' propensity to use system currency to unlock game-based features, (i.e., referred to here as spendency). This study examines how spendency relates to students' interaction preferences, in-system performance, and learning outcomes (i.e., self-explanation quality, comprehension). A group of 40 high school students interacted with iSTART-ME as part of an 11-session experiment (pretest, eight training sessions, posttest, and a delayed retention test). Students' spendency was negatively related to the frequency of their use of personalizable features. In addition, students' spendency was negatively related to their in-system achievements, daily learning outcomes, and performance on a transfer comprehension task, even after factoring out prior ability. The findings from this study indicate that increases in students' spendency are systematically related to their selection choices and may have a negative effect on in-system performance, immediate learning outcomes, and skill transfer outcomes. The results have particular relevance to game-based systems that incorporate currency to unlock features within games as well as to the differential tradeoffs of game features on motivation and learning.

KW - Game-based features

KW - Gamification

KW - Intelligent tutoring systems

KW - Seductive distractors

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84949754295&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84949754295&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s40593-015-0044-1

DO - 10.1007/s40593-015-0044-1

M3 - Article

VL - 25

SP - 407

EP - 427

JO - International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education

JF - International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education

SN - 1560-4292

IS - 3

ER -