Spectroscopic studies of metal high-k dielectrics: Transition metal oxides and silicates, and complex rare earth/transition metal oxides

G. Lucovsky, J. G. Hong, C. C. Fulton, Y. Zou, R. J. Nemanich, H. Ade, D. G. Scholm, J. L. Freeouf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations

Abstract

This paper uses X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of electronic structure of the transition metal oxides TiO2, ZrO2 and HfO2, Zr and Hf silicate alloys, and the complex oxides, GdScO 3, DyScO3 and HfTiO4. Qualitative and quantitative differences are identified between dipole allowed intra-atomic transitions from core p-states to empty d*- and s*-states, and inter-atomic transitions from transition metal and oxide 1s states to O 2p* that are mixed with transition metal d*- and s*-states for transition metal oxides and silicate alloys. The complex oxide studies have focused on the O K1 edge spectra. Differences between the spectral peak energies of the lowest d*-features in the respective O K1 spectra are demonstrated to scale with optical band gap differences for TiO 2, ZrO2 and HfO2, as well as the complex oxides providing important information relevant to applications of TM oxides as high-k gate dielectrics in advanced Si devices. This is demonstrated through scaling relationships between (i) conduction band offset energies between Si and the respective dielectrics, and the optical band gaps, and (ii) the optical band gaps, the conduction band offset energies, and the electron tunneling masses as functions of the atomic d-state energies of the transition metal atoms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2221-2235
Number of pages15
JournalPhysica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research
Volume241
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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