South American plasmodium falciparum after the malaria eradication era: Clonal population expansion and survival of the fittest hybrids

Sean M. Griffing, Tonya Mixson-Hayden, Sankar Sridaran, Md Tauqeer Alam, Andrea M. McCollum, César Cabezas, Wilmer Marquiño Quezada, John W. Barnwell, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira, Carmen Lucas, Nancy Arrospide, Ananias A. Escalante, David J. Bacon, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Malaria has reemerged in many regions where once it was nearly eliminated. Yet the source of these parasites, the process of repopulation, their population structure, and dynamics are ill defined. Peru was one of malaria eradication's successes, where Plasmodium falciparum was nearly eliminated for two decades. It reemerged in the 1990s. In the new era of malaria elimination, Peruvian P. falciparum is a model of malaria reinvasion. We investigated its population structure and drug resistance profiles. We hypothesized that only populations adapted to local ecological niches could expand and repopulate and originated as vestigial populations or recent introductions. We investigated the genetic structure (using microsatellites) and drug resistant genotypes of 220 parasites collected from patients immediately after peak epidemic expansion (1999-2000) from seven sites across the country. The majority of parasites could be grouped into five clonal lineages by networks and AMOVA. The distribution of clonal lineages and their drug sensitivity profiles suggested geographic structure. In 2001, artesunate combination therapy was introduced in Peru. We tested 62 parasites collected in 2006-2007 for changes in genetic structure. Clonal lineages had recombined under selection for the fittest parasites. Our findings illustrate that local adaptations in the post-eradication era have contributed to clonal lineage expansion. Within the shifting confluence of drug policy and malaria incidence, populations continue to evolve through genetic outcrossing influenced by antimalarial selection pressure. Understanding the population substructure of P. falciparum has implications for vaccine, drug, and epidemiologic studies, including monitoring malaria during and after the elimination phase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere23486
JournalPLoS One
Volume6
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 16 2011

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Falciparum Malaria
Plasmodium falciparum
malaria
Malaria
Parasites
Survival
parasites
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Population
drugs
Peru
Genetic Structures
population structure
Antimalarials
antimalarials
Microsatellite Repeats
Population Dynamics
drug resistance
outcrossing
Drug Resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Griffing, S. M., Mixson-Hayden, T., Sridaran, S., Alam, M. T., McCollum, A. M., Cabezas, C., ... Udhayakumar, V. (2011). South American plasmodium falciparum after the malaria eradication era: Clonal population expansion and survival of the fittest hybrids. PLoS One, 6(9), [e23486]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023486

South American plasmodium falciparum after the malaria eradication era : Clonal population expansion and survival of the fittest hybrids. / Griffing, Sean M.; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Sridaran, Sankar; Alam, Md Tauqeer; McCollum, Andrea M.; Cabezas, César; Quezada, Wilmer Marquiño; Barnwell, John W.; de Oliveira, Alexandre Macedo; Lucas, Carmen; Arrospide, Nancy; Escalante, Ananias A.; Bacon, David J.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 6, No. 9, e23486, 16.09.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Griffing, SM, Mixson-Hayden, T, Sridaran, S, Alam, MT, McCollum, AM, Cabezas, C, Quezada, WM, Barnwell, JW, de Oliveira, AM, Lucas, C, Arrospide, N, Escalante, AA, Bacon, DJ & Udhayakumar, V 2011, 'South American plasmodium falciparum after the malaria eradication era: Clonal population expansion and survival of the fittest hybrids', PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 9, e23486. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023486
Griffing, Sean M. ; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya ; Sridaran, Sankar ; Alam, Md Tauqeer ; McCollum, Andrea M. ; Cabezas, César ; Quezada, Wilmer Marquiño ; Barnwell, John W. ; de Oliveira, Alexandre Macedo ; Lucas, Carmen ; Arrospide, Nancy ; Escalante, Ananias A. ; Bacon, David J. ; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam. / South American plasmodium falciparum after the malaria eradication era : Clonal population expansion and survival of the fittest hybrids. In: PLoS One. 2011 ; Vol. 6, No. 9.
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