Abstract

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Sunlight photolysis, as one process by which DBPs may dissipate in the receiving surface water, was investigated. Outdoor natural sunlight experiments were conducted in water for a series of carbonaceous DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, halopropanones, and haloacetaldehydes) and nitrogenous DBPs (nitrosamines, halonitromethanes, and haloacetonitriles). Their pseudo-first-order rate constants for photolytic degradation were then used to calibrate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) parameters, which, in return, predicted the photolysis potentials of other DBPs or related compounds. Nitrogenous DBPs were found to be more susceptible to solar irradiation than carbonaceous DBPs, with general rankings for the functional groups as follows: N-nitroso (N-NO)>nitro (NO2)>nitrile (CN)>carbonyl (CO)>carboxyl (COOH). Compounds containing a high degree of halogenation (e.g., three halogens) were usually less stable than less halogenated species (e.g., those with two halogens). Bromine- or iodine-substituted species were more photosensitive than chlorinated analogs. While most bromine- and chlorine-containing trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids persisted over the 6-h test, nearly complete removal (>99%) of nitrosamines occurred within 1 h of sunlight exposure. Indoor laboratory experiments using simulated sunlight demonstrated that the degradation of nitrosamines was ∼50% slower when organic matter was present, and ∼11% slower in non-filtered water than in filtered water.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3401-3409
Number of pages9
JournalWater Research
Volume44
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2010

Fingerprint

Disinfection
Photolysis
photolysis
disinfection
Byproducts
kinetics
Nitrosamines
Kinetics
Bromine
bromine
halogen
Halogenation
Water
Degradation
degradation
Aquatic ecosystems
Acids
acid
iodine
Iodine

Keywords

  • DBP
  • HAA
  • NDMA
  • Photolysis
  • QSAR
  • THM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Ecological Modeling

Cite this

Solar photolysis kinetics of disinfection byproducts. / Chen, Baiyang; Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul; Krasner, Stuart W.; Herckes, Pierre.

In: Water Research, Vol. 44, No. 11, 06.2010, p. 3401-3409.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chen, Baiyang ; Lee, Wontae ; Westerhoff, Paul ; Krasner, Stuart W. ; Herckes, Pierre. / Solar photolysis kinetics of disinfection byproducts. In: Water Research. 2010 ; Vol. 44, No. 11. pp. 3401-3409.
@article{960407b18e1a4653890d05d04f4a77d0,
title = "Solar photolysis kinetics of disinfection byproducts",
abstract = "Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Sunlight photolysis, as one process by which DBPs may dissipate in the receiving surface water, was investigated. Outdoor natural sunlight experiments were conducted in water for a series of carbonaceous DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, halopropanones, and haloacetaldehydes) and nitrogenous DBPs (nitrosamines, halonitromethanes, and haloacetonitriles). Their pseudo-first-order rate constants for photolytic degradation were then used to calibrate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) parameters, which, in return, predicted the photolysis potentials of other DBPs or related compounds. Nitrogenous DBPs were found to be more susceptible to solar irradiation than carbonaceous DBPs, with general rankings for the functional groups as follows: N-nitroso (N-NO)>nitro (NO2)>nitrile (CN)>carbonyl (CO)>carboxyl (COOH). Compounds containing a high degree of halogenation (e.g., three halogens) were usually less stable than less halogenated species (e.g., those with two halogens). Bromine- or iodine-substituted species were more photosensitive than chlorinated analogs. While most bromine- and chlorine-containing trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids persisted over the 6-h test, nearly complete removal (>99{\%}) of nitrosamines occurred within 1 h of sunlight exposure. Indoor laboratory experiments using simulated sunlight demonstrated that the degradation of nitrosamines was ∼50{\%} slower when organic matter was present, and ∼11{\%} slower in non-filtered water than in filtered water.",
keywords = "DBP, HAA, NDMA, Photolysis, QSAR, THM",
author = "Baiyang Chen and Wontae Lee and Paul Westerhoff and Krasner, {Stuart W.} and Pierre Herckes",
year = "2010",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1016/j.watres.2010.03.014",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "44",
pages = "3401--3409",
journal = "Water Research",
issn = "0043-1354",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Solar photolysis kinetics of disinfection byproducts

AU - Chen, Baiyang

AU - Lee, Wontae

AU - Westerhoff, Paul

AU - Krasner, Stuart W.

AU - Herckes, Pierre

PY - 2010/6

Y1 - 2010/6

N2 - Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Sunlight photolysis, as one process by which DBPs may dissipate in the receiving surface water, was investigated. Outdoor natural sunlight experiments were conducted in water for a series of carbonaceous DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, halopropanones, and haloacetaldehydes) and nitrogenous DBPs (nitrosamines, halonitromethanes, and haloacetonitriles). Their pseudo-first-order rate constants for photolytic degradation were then used to calibrate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) parameters, which, in return, predicted the photolysis potentials of other DBPs or related compounds. Nitrogenous DBPs were found to be more susceptible to solar irradiation than carbonaceous DBPs, with general rankings for the functional groups as follows: N-nitroso (N-NO)>nitro (NO2)>nitrile (CN)>carbonyl (CO)>carboxyl (COOH). Compounds containing a high degree of halogenation (e.g., three halogens) were usually less stable than less halogenated species (e.g., those with two halogens). Bromine- or iodine-substituted species were more photosensitive than chlorinated analogs. While most bromine- and chlorine-containing trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids persisted over the 6-h test, nearly complete removal (>99%) of nitrosamines occurred within 1 h of sunlight exposure. Indoor laboratory experiments using simulated sunlight demonstrated that the degradation of nitrosamines was ∼50% slower when organic matter was present, and ∼11% slower in non-filtered water than in filtered water.

AB - Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Sunlight photolysis, as one process by which DBPs may dissipate in the receiving surface water, was investigated. Outdoor natural sunlight experiments were conducted in water for a series of carbonaceous DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, halopropanones, and haloacetaldehydes) and nitrogenous DBPs (nitrosamines, halonitromethanes, and haloacetonitriles). Their pseudo-first-order rate constants for photolytic degradation were then used to calibrate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) parameters, which, in return, predicted the photolysis potentials of other DBPs or related compounds. Nitrogenous DBPs were found to be more susceptible to solar irradiation than carbonaceous DBPs, with general rankings for the functional groups as follows: N-nitroso (N-NO)>nitro (NO2)>nitrile (CN)>carbonyl (CO)>carboxyl (COOH). Compounds containing a high degree of halogenation (e.g., three halogens) were usually less stable than less halogenated species (e.g., those with two halogens). Bromine- or iodine-substituted species were more photosensitive than chlorinated analogs. While most bromine- and chlorine-containing trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids persisted over the 6-h test, nearly complete removal (>99%) of nitrosamines occurred within 1 h of sunlight exposure. Indoor laboratory experiments using simulated sunlight demonstrated that the degradation of nitrosamines was ∼50% slower when organic matter was present, and ∼11% slower in non-filtered water than in filtered water.

KW - DBP

KW - HAA

KW - NDMA

KW - Photolysis

KW - QSAR

KW - THM

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77953028139&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77953028139&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.watres.2010.03.014

DO - 10.1016/j.watres.2010.03.014

M3 - Article

C2 - 20417540

AN - SCOPUS:77953028139

VL - 44

SP - 3401

EP - 3409

JO - Water Research

JF - Water Research

SN - 0043-1354

IS - 11

ER -