Social accounting for nonprofits: Two models

Betty Jane Richmond, Laurie Mook, Quarter Jack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


After giving an overview of the development of social accounting, this article presents two models of social accounting for nonprofits: the community social return on investment model and the expanded value-added statement. The discussion focuses on the process for establishing a comparative market value for nonmarket social outputs. The authors discuss these models and the comparative market value in relation to social accounting, an academic field that has evolved as part of a critique of financial accounting, especially its failure to analyze the impact of the organization on society and the natural environment. For the most part, scholars have not related social accounting to nonprofits. This article attempts to draw nonprofits into the field of social accounting. Both models address the social impact of nonprofits by including social inputs and outputs that accounting statements normally exclude.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)308-324
Number of pages17
JournalNonprofit Management and Leadership
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management


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