Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Antarctic Cryoconite Holes

Pacifica Sommers, Rafaela S. Fontenele, Tayele Kringen, Simona Kraberger, Dorota L. Porazinska, John L. Darcy, Steven K. Schmidt, Arvind Varsani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Antarctic cryoconite holes, or small melt-holes in the surfaces of glaciers, create habitable oases for isolated microbial communities with tightly linked microbial population structures. Viruses may influence the dynamics of polar microbial communities, but the viromes of the Antarctic cryoconite holes have yet to be characterized. We characterize single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses from three cryoconite holes in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, using metagenomics. Half of the assembled metagenomes cluster with those in the viral family Microviridae (n = 7), and the rest with unclassified circular replication associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses (n = 7). An additional 18 virus-like circular molecules encoding either a Rep, a capsid protein gene, or other unidentified but viral-like open reading frames were identified. The samples from which the genomes were identified show a strong gradient in microbial diversity and abundances, and the number of viral genomes detected in each sample mirror that gradient. Additionally, one of the CRESS genomes assembled here shares ~90% genome-wide pairwise identity with a virus identified from a freshwater pond on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica). Otherwise, the similarity of these viruses to those previously identified is relatively low. Together, these patterns are consistent with the presence of a unique regional virome present in fresh water host populations of the McMurdo Dry Valley region.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalViruses
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 4 2019

Fingerprint

DNA Viruses
Single-Stranded DNA
Viruses
Genome
Fresh Water
Microviridae
Metagenome
Ice Cover
Metagenomics
Viral Genome
Ice
Capsid Proteins
Population
Open Reading Frames
Proteins
Genes

Keywords

  • Antarctica
  • CRESS DNA virus
  • cryoconite
  • glacier
  • microvirus
  • viral metagenomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Cite this

Sommers, P., Fontenele, R. S., Kringen, T., Kraberger, S., Porazinska, D. L., Darcy, J. L., ... Varsani, A. (2019). Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Antarctic Cryoconite Holes. Viruses, 11(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111022

Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Antarctic Cryoconite Holes. / Sommers, Pacifica; Fontenele, Rafaela S.; Kringen, Tayele; Kraberger, Simona; Porazinska, Dorota L.; Darcy, John L.; Schmidt, Steven K.; Varsani, Arvind.

In: Viruses, Vol. 11, No. 11, 04.11.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sommers, P, Fontenele, RS, Kringen, T, Kraberger, S, Porazinska, DL, Darcy, JL, Schmidt, SK & Varsani, A 2019, 'Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Antarctic Cryoconite Holes', Viruses, vol. 11, no. 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111022
Sommers P, Fontenele RS, Kringen T, Kraberger S, Porazinska DL, Darcy JL et al. Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Antarctic Cryoconite Holes. Viruses. 2019 Nov 4;11(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111022
Sommers, Pacifica ; Fontenele, Rafaela S. ; Kringen, Tayele ; Kraberger, Simona ; Porazinska, Dorota L. ; Darcy, John L. ; Schmidt, Steven K. ; Varsani, Arvind. / Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Antarctic Cryoconite Holes. In: Viruses. 2019 ; Vol. 11, No. 11.
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