In polygynous and polygynandrous species, there is often intense male-male competition over access to females, high male reproductive skew, and more male investment in mating effort than parenting effort . However, the benefits derived from mating effort and parenting effort may change over the course of males’ lives. In many mammalian species, there is a ∩-shaped relationship between age, condition, and resource holding power as middle-aged males that are in prime physical condition outcompete older males [2–8] and sire more infants [9–12]. Thus, males might derive more benefits from parenting effort than mating effort as they age and their competitive abilities decline . Alternatively, older males may invest more effort in making themselves attractive to females as mates . One way that older males might do so is by developing relationships with females and providing care for their offspring [14, 15]. Savannah baboons provide an excellent opportunity to test these hypotheses. They form stable multi-male, multi-female groups, and males compete for high ranking positions. In yellow and chacma baboons (Papio cynocephalus and P. ursinus), there is a ∩-shaped relationship between male age and dominance rank , and high rank enhances paternity success [12, 16]. Lactating female baboons form close ties (“primary associations” hereafter) with particular males [15–20], who support them and their infants in conflicts [15, 19] and buffer their infants from rough handling . Females’ primary associates are often, but not always, the sires of their current infants [16, 20–22].
- Papio anubis
- male reproductive strategy
- mating effort
- parenting effort
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)