Shear wave splitting and waveform complexity for lowermost mantle structures with low-velocity lamellae and transverse isotropy

Melissa M. Moore, Edward Garnero, Thorne Lay, Quentin Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Shear waves that traverse the lowermost mantle exhibit polarization anomalies and waveform complexities that indicate the presence of complex velocity structure above the core-mantle boundary. Synthetic seismograms for horizontally and vertically polarized shear waves (SH and SV respectively) are computed using the reflectivity method for structures with low-velocity sheets ("lamellae"), and for comb-like models approximating long wavelength vertical transverse isotropy (VTI). Motivated by evidence for partial melt in the deep mantle, lamella parameter ranges include (1) δVP from -5 to -10%, δVS = 3δVP; (2) 100 to 300 km thickness of vertical stacks of lamella; (3) lamella spacing and thickness varying from 0.5 to 20 km; and (4) lamellae concentrated near the top, bottom, or throughout the D″ region at the base of the mantle. Such lamellae represent, in effect, horizontally emplaced dikes within D″. Excessively complex waveforms are produced when more than ∼20% of D″ volume is comprised of low-velocity lamellae. Many lamellae models can match observed Sdiff splitting (1-10 s delays of SVdiff), but typically underpredict ScS splitting (1-4 s delays of ScSV). VTI model parameters are selected to address D″ observations, and include (1) 0.5 to 3% anisotropy; (2) discontinuous D″ shear velocity increases up to 3%; (3) D″ thicknesses from 100 to 300 km; and (4) VTI concentrated at the top, bottom, or throughout D″. VT1 models readily match observed splits of ScS and SVdiff. We discuss lamellae and VTI model attributes in relationship to waveform complexities, splitting magnitude, triplications from a high-velocity D″ discontinuity, and apparently reversed polarity SVdiff onsets. The possible presence of melt-filled lamellae indicates that local chemical or thermal perturbations can produce regions that exceed the solidus within D″. Such melt could occur in the bulk of D″ because the melt is either close to neutral buoyancy, advective velocities exceed percolative velocities, or both.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth
Volume109
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 10 2004

Fingerprint

transverse isotropy
wave splitting
mantle structure
Shear waves
isotropy
lamella
low speed
S waves
S-wave
waveforms
Earth mantle
melt
mantle
D region
core-mantle boundary
Viral Structural Proteins
synthetic seismogram
Levees
velocity structure
reflectivity

Keywords

  • Lowermost mantle anisotropy
  • Shear wave splitting
  • Waveform modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Shear wave splitting and waveform complexity for lowermost mantle structures with low-velocity lamellae and transverse isotropy. / Moore, Melissa M.; Garnero, Edward; Lay, Thorne; Williams, Quentin.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth, Vol. 109, No. 2, 10.02.2004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Shear waves that traverse the lowermost mantle exhibit polarization anomalies and waveform complexities that indicate the presence of complex velocity structure above the core-mantle boundary. Synthetic seismograms for horizontally and vertically polarized shear waves (SH and SV respectively) are computed using the reflectivity method for structures with low-velocity sheets ({"}lamellae{"}), and for comb-like models approximating long wavelength vertical transverse isotropy (VTI). Motivated by evidence for partial melt in the deep mantle, lamella parameter ranges include (1) δVP from -5 to -10{\%}, δVS = 3δVP; (2) 100 to 300 km thickness of vertical stacks of lamella; (3) lamella spacing and thickness varying from 0.5 to 20 km; and (4) lamellae concentrated near the top, bottom, or throughout the D″ region at the base of the mantle. Such lamellae represent, in effect, horizontally emplaced dikes within D″. Excessively complex waveforms are produced when more than ∼20{\%} of D″ volume is comprised of low-velocity lamellae. Many lamellae models can match observed Sdiff splitting (1-10 s delays of SVdiff), but typically underpredict ScS splitting (1-4 s delays of ScSV). VTI model parameters are selected to address D″ observations, and include (1) 0.5 to 3{\%} anisotropy; (2) discontinuous D″ shear velocity increases up to 3{\%}; (3) D″ thicknesses from 100 to 300 km; and (4) VTI concentrated at the top, bottom, or throughout D″. VT1 models readily match observed splits of ScS and SVdiff. We discuss lamellae and VTI model attributes in relationship to waveform complexities, splitting magnitude, triplications from a high-velocity D″ discontinuity, and apparently reversed polarity SVdiff onsets. The possible presence of melt-filled lamellae indicates that local chemical or thermal perturbations can produce regions that exceed the solidus within D″. Such melt could occur in the bulk of D″ because the melt is either close to neutral buoyancy, advective velocities exceed percolative velocities, or both.",
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N2 - Shear waves that traverse the lowermost mantle exhibit polarization anomalies and waveform complexities that indicate the presence of complex velocity structure above the core-mantle boundary. Synthetic seismograms for horizontally and vertically polarized shear waves (SH and SV respectively) are computed using the reflectivity method for structures with low-velocity sheets ("lamellae"), and for comb-like models approximating long wavelength vertical transverse isotropy (VTI). Motivated by evidence for partial melt in the deep mantle, lamella parameter ranges include (1) δVP from -5 to -10%, δVS = 3δVP; (2) 100 to 300 km thickness of vertical stacks of lamella; (3) lamella spacing and thickness varying from 0.5 to 20 km; and (4) lamellae concentrated near the top, bottom, or throughout the D″ region at the base of the mantle. Such lamellae represent, in effect, horizontally emplaced dikes within D″. Excessively complex waveforms are produced when more than ∼20% of D″ volume is comprised of low-velocity lamellae. Many lamellae models can match observed Sdiff splitting (1-10 s delays of SVdiff), but typically underpredict ScS splitting (1-4 s delays of ScSV). VTI model parameters are selected to address D″ observations, and include (1) 0.5 to 3% anisotropy; (2) discontinuous D″ shear velocity increases up to 3%; (3) D″ thicknesses from 100 to 300 km; and (4) VTI concentrated at the top, bottom, or throughout D″. VT1 models readily match observed splits of ScS and SVdiff. We discuss lamellae and VTI model attributes in relationship to waveform complexities, splitting magnitude, triplications from a high-velocity D″ discontinuity, and apparently reversed polarity SVdiff onsets. The possible presence of melt-filled lamellae indicates that local chemical or thermal perturbations can produce regions that exceed the solidus within D″. Such melt could occur in the bulk of D″ because the melt is either close to neutral buoyancy, advective velocities exceed percolative velocities, or both.

AB - Shear waves that traverse the lowermost mantle exhibit polarization anomalies and waveform complexities that indicate the presence of complex velocity structure above the core-mantle boundary. Synthetic seismograms for horizontally and vertically polarized shear waves (SH and SV respectively) are computed using the reflectivity method for structures with low-velocity sheets ("lamellae"), and for comb-like models approximating long wavelength vertical transverse isotropy (VTI). Motivated by evidence for partial melt in the deep mantle, lamella parameter ranges include (1) δVP from -5 to -10%, δVS = 3δVP; (2) 100 to 300 km thickness of vertical stacks of lamella; (3) lamella spacing and thickness varying from 0.5 to 20 km; and (4) lamellae concentrated near the top, bottom, or throughout the D″ region at the base of the mantle. Such lamellae represent, in effect, horizontally emplaced dikes within D″. Excessively complex waveforms are produced when more than ∼20% of D″ volume is comprised of low-velocity lamellae. Many lamellae models can match observed Sdiff splitting (1-10 s delays of SVdiff), but typically underpredict ScS splitting (1-4 s delays of ScSV). VTI model parameters are selected to address D″ observations, and include (1) 0.5 to 3% anisotropy; (2) discontinuous D″ shear velocity increases up to 3%; (3) D″ thicknesses from 100 to 300 km; and (4) VTI concentrated at the top, bottom, or throughout D″. VT1 models readily match observed splits of ScS and SVdiff. We discuss lamellae and VTI model attributes in relationship to waveform complexities, splitting magnitude, triplications from a high-velocity D″ discontinuity, and apparently reversed polarity SVdiff onsets. The possible presence of melt-filled lamellae indicates that local chemical or thermal perturbations can produce regions that exceed the solidus within D″. Such melt could occur in the bulk of D″ because the melt is either close to neutral buoyancy, advective velocities exceed percolative velocities, or both.

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