Twenty-four male and 24 female Ss played 100 trials of a typical prisoner’s dilemma game (PDG) with a simulated partner. Half the Ss were told that the other player was of the same sex as themselves (Treatment 1), and the remainder were told that the other player was of the opposite sex (Treatment 2). Ss under Treatment 1 were more competitive than Ss under Treatment 2 for each sex, and, overall, males were more cooperative than females. It is suggested that the results may be interpreted in terms of achievement motivation and its relation to sex-role identification.
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