Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: Milk trumps mammary tissue

Danielle G. Lemay, Russell C. Hovey, Stella R. Hartono, Katherine Hinde, Jennifer T. Smilowitz, Frank Ventimiglia, Kimberli A. Schmidt, Joyce W S Lee, Alma Islas-Trejo, Pedro I. Silva, Ian Korf, Juan F. Medrano, Peter A. Barry, J. B. German

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells.Results: We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells.Conclusions: RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number872
JournalBMC Genomics
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 12 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Transcriptome
Milk
Breast
RNA
Macaca
Epithelial Cells
Human Milk
Lactation
Primates
Fats
RNA Sequence Analysis
RNA Stability
Human Mammary Glands
Macaca mulatta
Adipocytes
Rodentia
Epithelium
Cell Culture Techniques

Keywords

  • Bioinformatics
  • Human
  • Mammary gland
  • Milk
  • Milk processing
  • Milk RNA
  • Rhesus macaque
  • RNA-Seq
  • Transcriptome
  • Transcriptomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Lemay, D. G., Hovey, R. C., Hartono, S. R., Hinde, K., Smilowitz, J. T., Ventimiglia, F., ... German, J. B. (2013). Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: Milk trumps mammary tissue. BMC Genomics, 14(1), [872]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-872

Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production : Milk trumps mammary tissue. / Lemay, Danielle G.; Hovey, Russell C.; Hartono, Stella R.; Hinde, Katherine; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Ventimiglia, Frank; Schmidt, Kimberli A.; Lee, Joyce W S; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Silva, Pedro I.; Korf, Ian; Medrano, Juan F.; Barry, Peter A.; German, J. B.

In: BMC Genomics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 872, 12.12.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lemay, DG, Hovey, RC, Hartono, SR, Hinde, K, Smilowitz, JT, Ventimiglia, F, Schmidt, KA, Lee, JWS, Islas-Trejo, A, Silva, PI, Korf, I, Medrano, JF, Barry, PA & German, JB 2013, 'Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: Milk trumps mammary tissue', BMC Genomics, vol. 14, no. 1, 872. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-872
Lemay DG, Hovey RC, Hartono SR, Hinde K, Smilowitz JT, Ventimiglia F et al. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: Milk trumps mammary tissue. BMC Genomics. 2013 Dec 12;14(1). 872. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-872
Lemay, Danielle G. ; Hovey, Russell C. ; Hartono, Stella R. ; Hinde, Katherine ; Smilowitz, Jennifer T. ; Ventimiglia, Frank ; Schmidt, Kimberli A. ; Lee, Joyce W S ; Islas-Trejo, Alma ; Silva, Pedro I. ; Korf, Ian ; Medrano, Juan F. ; Barry, Peter A. ; German, J. B. / Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production : Milk trumps mammary tissue. In: BMC Genomics. 2013 ; Vol. 14, No. 1.
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