Separations of bioanalytes require robust, effective, and selective migration phenomena. However, due to the complexity of biological matrices such as body fluids or tissue, these requirements are difficult to achieve. The separations field is thus constantly evolving to develop suitable methods to separate biomarkers and fractionate biospecimens for further interrogation of biomolecular content. Advances in the field of microfabrication allow the tailored generation of micro- and nanofluidic environments. These can be exploited to induce interactions and dynamics of biological species with the corresponding geometrical features, which in turn can be capitalized for novel separation approaches. This review provides an overview of several unique separation applications demonstrated in recent years in tailored micro- and nanofluidic environments. These include electrokinetic methods such as dielectrophoresis and electrophoresis, but also rather nonintuitive ratchet separation mechanisms, continuous flow separations, and fractionations such as deterministic lateral displacement, as well as methods employing entropic forces for separation.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||26|
|Journal||Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry|
|State||Published - Jun 12 2019|
- entropic traps
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry