This chapter overviews the theoretical bases for research self-regulation among students with Learning Disabilities (LDs) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Self-regulation or self-control processes are used in creating new learning as well as in moving information from working memory to long-term memory. A number of self-regulation processes or strategies can be effectively taught to students with deficiencies or difficulties in self-regulation to aid in their development of these capabilities. These include self-monitoring, self-evaluation, self-instruction, goal-setting, and self-reinforcement. Effective learners are goal-oriented, and goal-setting is viewed as an important aspect of self-regulation. Goals serve important functions for learners. Goal-setting often involves a self-judgment process that entails comparing current performance with a goal. For goal-setting to affect behavior, goals must be valued. On-task behavior is the most studied outcome in self-regulation interventions by a wide margin. Children with LDs and ADHD often exhibit problem behavior in the classroom. This may take the form of inappropriate verbalizations, impulsive or inappropriate behaviors, or excessive motor activity.
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