This paper presents a selective error detection (SED) scheme that is based on a similarity check function designed for the JPEG2000 compression algorithm. The presented scheme takes advantage of the error-resilience properties of JPEG2000 to significantly reduce the number of corrupted data packets that need to be retransmitted in a typical ARQ scheme. The degree of corruption induced by a particular codeblock is measured by a similarity check function at the receiver, without using any explicit knowledge regarding the original source data. Accordingly, if the data is found to be badly corrupted based on a specified similarity criteria, it is considered unusable and retransmitted. On the other hand, if the corrupted data does not significantly affect the quality of the decoded image, it is simply processed by the decoder without retransmission. Simulation results comparing the proposed selective retransmission scheme to full retransmission of corrupted packets are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.