Searching for the two sigma advantage: Evaluating algebra intelligent tutors

Kent E. Sabo, Robert Atkinson, Angela L. Barrus, Stacey S. Joseph, Ray S. Perez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


This study evaluated 2 off-the-shelf, computer-based, mathematics intelligent-tutoring systems that provide instruction in algebra during a remedial mathematics summer program. The majority of the enrolled high school students failed to pass algebra in the previous semester. Students were randomly assigned in approximately equal proportions to work with the Carnegie Learning Algebra Cognitive Tutor or the ALEKS Algebra Course. Using the tutoring system exclusively, the students completed a 4-h-a-day, 14-day summer school high school algebra class for credit. The results revealed that both tutoring systems produced statistically and practically meaningful learning gains on measures of arithmetic and algebra knowledge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1833-1840
Number of pages8
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2013


  • Applications in subject areas
  • Evaluation methodologies
  • Evaluation of CAL systems
  • Intelligent tutoring systems
  • Secondary education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Psychology(all)


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