Scaling laws for NO(x) emission performance of burners and furnaces from 30 kW to 12 MW

T. C.Adrian Hsieh, Werner J.A. Dahm, James F. Driscoll

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


A general analytical approach for scaling NO(x) emissions from burners and furnaces is presented, together with the scaling model for NO(x) emissions performance that results when this approach is applied to a broad class of swift-stabilized industrial gas burners. The model is based on results from a set of collaborative burner scaling experiments on a generic gas burner and furnace design at five different scales having near-uniform geometric, aerodynamic, and thermal similarity and uniform measurement protocols. This collaborative effort provides the first NO(x) scaling data over the range of thermal scales from 30 kW to 12 MW, including input-output measurements as well as detailed in-flame measurements of NO, NO2, CO, O2, unburned hydrocarbons, temperature, and velocities at each scale. The in- flame measurements allow identification of key sources of NO(x) production. The underlying physics of these NO(x) sources lead to scaling laws for their respective contributions to the overall NO(x) emissions performance. It is found that the relative importance of each source depends on the burner scale and operating conditions. The scalings for these NO(x) sources are combined in a comprehensive scaling model for NO(x) emission performance. Results from the scaling model show good agreement with experimental data at all burner scales and over the entire range of turndown, staging, preheat, and excess air dilution, with correlations generally exceeding 90%. The scaling model permits design trade-off assessments for a broad class of burners and furnaces, and allows performance of full industrial-scale burners and furnaces of this type to be inferred from results of small-scale tests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)54-80
Number of pages27
JournalCombustion and Flame
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jul 1998
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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