The safety and immunogenicity of the mammalian mucosal adjuvants, Escherichia coli wild-type heat-labile holotoxin (LT) and E. coli mutant LT (LTA-K63/LTB), were examined in 1-day-old chicks and 10-day-old to 21-day-old broilers. Biologically active, E. coli recombinant wild-type LT and recombinant LTA-K63/LTB produced in a transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (NT-1) tobacco cell line (SLT102) were tested for safety and antigenicity following various routes of administration. Safety was assessed by clinical signs, body weight gain, gross organ pathology and wet organ weight, and histopathology. Antigenicity was assessed using LT-B-specific serum IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parenteral administration of E. coli recombinant wild-type LT did not have any discernible effect on bird health and was well tolerated at levels up to 400 μg per dose. Recombinant, SLT102-derived mutant LT derived from SLT102 cells retained in vitro ganglioside binding and was safe and antigenic following repeated mucosal administration to birds. The highest systemic LT-B-specific IgG titres were detected in birds that received three on-feed doses of SLT102-derived mutant LT. Among the various SLT102-derived mutant LT preparations tested, whole, wet cells or whole cell lysates were the most antigenic. These results demonstrate for the first time that E. coli-derived recombinant, wild-type LT holotoxin is well tolerated following multiple administrations to young birds at body weight doses previously reported to be enteropathogenic and toxic in mammalian species. Moreover, these data also demonstrate the feasibility of using recombinant wild-type and mutant LT produced in transgenic NT-1 tobacco cells as safe and potent vaccine adjuvants in poultry.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Animals
- Animal Science and Zoology
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)