S-Gal®, a novel1H MRI reporter for β-galactosidase

Weina Cui, Li Liu, Vikram Kodibagkar, Ralph P. Mason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Reporter genes and associated enzyme activity are becoming increasingly significant for research in vivo. The lacZ gene and β-galactosidase (β-gal) expression have long been exploited as reporters of biologic manipulation at the molecular level, and a noninvasive detection strategy based on proton MRI is particularly attractive. 3,4-Cyclohexenoesculetin β-D-galactopyranoside (S-Gal®) is a commercial histologic stain, which forms a black precipitate in the presence of β-gal and ferric ions, suggesting potential detectability by MRI. Generation of the precipitate is now shown to cause strong T2* relaxation, revealing β-gal activity. A series of tests with the enzyme in vitro and with tumor cells shows that this approach can be used as an assay for β-gal activity. Proof of principle is shown in human breast tumor xenografts in mice. Upon direct injection of a mixture of 3,4-cyclohexenoesculetin β-D-galactopyranoside and ferric ammonium citrate, intense contrast was observed immediately in MCF7-lacZ tumors, but not in wild-type tumors. 3,4-Cyclohexenoesculetin β-D-galactopyranoside activation in combination with ferric ions introduces a novel approach for assaying enzyme activity by MRI in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-71
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Volume64
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Galactosidases
Galactose
Enzymes
Ions
Neoplasms
Lac Operon
Reporter Genes
Heterografts
Protons
Coloring Agents
Breast Neoplasms
Gene Expression
Injections
Research

Keywords

  • β-galactosidase
  • Ferric ammonium citrate
  • lacZ
  • MCF7 breast tumor
  • Reporter gene
  • S-Gal®

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

S-Gal®, a novel1H MRI reporter for β-galactosidase. / Cui, Weina; Liu, Li; Kodibagkar, Vikram; Mason, Ralph P.

In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 64, No. 1, 07.2010, p. 65-71.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cui, Weina ; Liu, Li ; Kodibagkar, Vikram ; Mason, Ralph P. / S-Gal®, a novel1H MRI reporter for β-galactosidase. In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2010 ; Vol. 64, No. 1. pp. 65-71.
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