Abstract

2,4,6-TCP, a kind of chlorinated aromatic and aliphatic compound, is difficult to be biodegraded by ordinary microorganisms. UV photolysis and biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens intimate coupling is a potential means to accelerate its biotransformation. The initial steps of 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation involve mono-oxygenation reactions that have molecular oxygen and an intracellular electron carrier as cosubstrates. It was demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens has the 2,4,6-TCP monooxygenase gene tcpA which could encode 2,4,6-TCP monooxygenase (TCP-MO). TCP-MO would catalytically decompose 2,4,6-TCP into 2,6-DCHQ. We employed an internal loop photolytic biofilm reactor for 2,4,6-TCP degradation. Sequentially coupled photolysis and biodegradation experimental results suggested that 2,4,6-TCP removal rate in P + B (TCP(UV) + phenol) protocol was higher by 77 and 103 % when compared to B (TCP + phenol) and B (TCP-only) protocols respectively. The corresponding loss rate coefficient (k) values were 0.069, 0.039, 0.034 mg/L·min<sup>−1</sup> respectively. This is because UV photolysis converted 2,4,6-TCP into its intermediates: 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-monochlorophenol (4-MCP), phenol, 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone (2,6-DCHQ), with all displaying less inhibition to bacterial action. In addition, phenol was the crucial UV-photolysis product from 2,4,6-TCP, its catabolic oxidation generating internal electron carriers that may accelerate the initial steps of 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation. Intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation experimental results suggested that 2,4,6-TCP removal rate in P&B (TCP + phenol) protocol was higher by 166 and 681 % when compared to P&B (TCP-only) and P + B protocols respectively. The corresponding loss rate coefficient (k) values were 0.539, 0.203, 0.069 mg/L·min<sup>−1</sup> respectively. It provided sufficient evidence to demonstrate that intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated 2,4,6-TCP removal much faster than sequentially coupled photolysis and biodegradation. In addition, oxidation of phenol was the mechanism by which intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated rapid 2,4,6-TCP removal producing electron equivalents that stimulated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions for 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation. It is important to note that 2,6-DCHQ (produced from UV-photolysis products or initial mono-oxygenation reactions) would be catalytically decomposed into 6-chlorohydroxyquinol (6-CHQ). Based on this, a tentative reaction mechanism for the photo-biodegradation 2,4,6-TCP was proposed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBiodegradation
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Sep 18 2015

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Keywords

  • 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP)
  • B. amyloliquefaciens
  • Biodegradation
  • Functional gene
  • ILPBR
  • Photolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Pollution
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Microbiology
  • Bioengineering

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