Cephalostatin 1 is a natural compound isolated from a marine worm that induces apoptosis in tumor cells via an apoptosome-independent but caspase-9-dependent pathway and through an endoplasmic reticulum stress response that is accompanied by caspase-4 activation. Here, we show that cephalostatin evokes mitochondrial Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) but not cytochrome c release in various carcinoma cell lines. We also show that Smac is critically involved in caspase-9 activation as evidenced by gene silencing experiments. Remarkably, caspase-2 appears to be a major target for cephalostatin-induced cytosolic Smac. Using biochemical and genetic inhibition experiments, we demonstrate that caspase-2 participates in the apoptotic machinery induced by cephalostatin. Cephalostatin-activated caspase-2 appears to act as initiator caspase and is not involved in the activation of caspase-9. Importantly, experiments immunoprecipitating PIDD (p53-induced protein with a DD), RAIDD (RIP-associated ICH-1/ CED-3-homologous protein with DD) and caspase-2 identify cephalostatin as an experimental drug that induces the formation of the PIDDosome. The bis-steroid cephalostatin proves to be both a helpful tool to investigate apoptotic signaling and a promising chemotherapeutic agent.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Cell Death and Differentiation|
|State||Published - 2008|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology